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Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
We investigate the physical conditions of the gas, atomic and molecular, in the filaments in the context of Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) using the KOSMA-PDR mode of clumpy clouds. We also compare the [CII] vs. [NII] integrated intensity predictions in Abel et al. 2005 for HII regions and adjacent PDRs in the Galactic disk, and check for their applicability under the extreme physical conditions present in the GC. Our preliminary results show that observed integrated intensities are well reproduced by the PDR model. The gas is exposed to a relatively low Far-UV field between 102 – 103 Draine fields. The total volume hydrogen density is well constrained between 104 – 105 cm−3. The hydrogen ionization rate due to cosmic-rays varies between 10−15 and 4× 10−15 s−1, with the highest value ~ 10−14 s−1 found towards G0.07+0.04. Our results show that the line-of-sight contribution to the total distance of the filaments to the Arches Cluster is not negligible. The spatial distribution of the [CII]/[NII] ratio shows that the integrated intensity ratios are fairly homogeneously distributed for values below 10 in energy units. Calculations including variation on the [C/N] abundance ratio show that tight constraints on this ratio are needed to reproduce the observations.
2MASS has provided a three-dimensional map of the > 360°, wrapped tidal tails of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy, as traced by M giant stars. With the inclusion of radial velocity data for stars along these tails, strong constraints exist for dynamical models of the Milky Way-Sgr interaction. N-body simulations of Sgr disruption with model parameters spanning a range of initial conditions (e.g., Sgr mass and orbit, Galactic rotation curve, halo flattening) are used to find parameterizations that match almost every extant observational constraint of the Sgr system. We discuss the implications of the Sgr data and models for the orbit, mass and M/L of the Sgr bound core as well as the strength, flattening, and lumpiness of the Milky Way potential.
A novel laser-assisted technique for e-beam epitaxial growth of GexSi1−x alloys on <100> Si has been investigated. During deposition, a XeCl excimer laser is used to either heat, or to melt and crystallize, the GexSi1−x continuously as the material is evaporated. This process of heating or melting and crystallizing can be continued until the desired film thickness is achieved. At incident laser energy densities which produce melt, the underlying crystalline seed ensures epitaxial growth during the subsequent solidification. Depositions of films up to 3 at.% Ge under this liquid regime, with substrates held nominally at room temperature, exhibited complete epitaxial growth. At energy densities below the melt threshold, enhanced surface mobility for epitaxial alignment is required. Depositions in this regime exhibit only partial epitaxial growth with conversion to fine grained polycrystalline growth after short distances.