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Cognitive deficits at the first episode of schizophrenia are predictive of functional outcome. Interventions that improve cognitive functioning early in schizophrenia are critical if we hope to prevent or limit long-term disability in this disorder.
We completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation and of long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone with 60 patients with a recent first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation involved programs focused on basic cognitive processes as well as more complex, life-like situations. Healthy behavior training of equal treatment time was the comparison group for cognitive remediation, while oral risperidone was the comparator for LAI risperidone in a 2 × 2 design. All patients were provided supported employment/education to encourage return to work or school.
Both antipsychotic medication adherence and cognitive remediation contributed to cognitive improvement. Cognitive remediation was superior to healthy behavior training in the LAI medication condition but not the oral medication condition. Cognitive remediation was also superior when medication adherence and protocol completion were covaried. Both LAI antipsychotic medication and cognitive remediation led to significantly greater improvement in work/school functioning. Effect sizes were larger than in most prior studies of first-episode patients. In addition, cognitive improvement was significantly correlated with work/school functional improvement.
These results indicate that consistent antipsychotic medication adherence and cognitive remediation can significantly improve core cognitive deficits in the initial period of schizophrenia. When combined with supported employment/education, cognitive remediation and LAI antipsychotic medication show separate significant impact on improving work/school functioning.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Pregnancy is a time when weight increases as part of a physiological process to aid fetal growth. However, when excess weight is gained during pregnancy, and retained thereafter, the risk of obesity in the future increases. Increasing BMI between pregnancies and maternal obesity are associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although the risks of increasing BMI on future pregnancies is well defined, the predictors of this weight gain are not. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of interpregnancy BMI change.
Materials and methods
This study was conducted in one of Europe's largest maternity hospitals delivering approximately 8000 infants per annum. Women's sociodemographic and clinical data were self-reported at the first antenatal visit and computerised to an electronic recording system by trained midwives. Weight and height were measured at the first antenatal visits of both pregnancies, and body mass index was calculated. Data was extracted and analysed for women who delivered their first and second singleton infants between 2009–2018.
A total of 12,056 women delivered their first and second baby over the 10-year period. The mean interval between pregnancies was 32.3months (SD15.9) and the median BMI change was 0.6units (IQR1.3). From the first to the second pregnancy the rate of obesity increased from 11.6% to 16.0%. Between pregnancies 46.1% of women maintained their BMI (-1 to + 1units), 13.3% lost > 1 BMI unit(s), whereas 15.5% gained 1–2unit(s), 9.9% gained 2–3units and 12.0% gained > 3units. Overall, 5.8% became obese by the second pregnancy. On multinomial regression analysis, having a pregnancy interval of > 3years (aOR2.1, 95%CI 1.9–2.5, p < 0.001), artificial feeding after the first pregnancy (aOR1.8, 1.5–2.0, p < 0.001), postnatal depression after the first pregnancy (aOR1.6, 1.3–2.1, p < 0.001) and taking prescribed anxiolytics or antidepressants (aOR1.6, 1.1–2.5, p = 0.013) were predictors of gaining > 3 BMI units between pregnancies after adjusting for maternal occupation and age. The predictors of becoming obese in the second pregnancy also included a pregnancy interval of > 3years (aOR1.5, 1.2–1.8, p < 0.001), artificial feeding after the first pregnancy (aOR2.1, 1.8–2.6, p < 0.001), postnatal depression after the first pregnancy (aOR1.7, 1.2–2.3, p = 0.001) and taking prescribed anxiolytics or antidepressants (aOR1.8, 1.1–3.1, p = 0.016) following the same adjustments.
Longer pregnancy interval, not breastfeeding and psychological health disorders are predictors of BMI increase between pregnancies and becoming obese in the second pregnancy. Interventions provided following women's first delivery should aim to promote breastfeeding, manage weight and improve mental health.
Historians have used a number of political, social, and other factors to explain the controversy surrounding elementary education in Victorian Britain. This article underscores the importance of religious motivations. The Act of 1870 – a significant extension of state responsibility – did not end debates about the purpose of education and the pros and cons of government involvement and religious instruction. Prominent among voluntaryists and anti-secularists was A. J. Beresford Hope, whose position offers useful insights into the educational agencies of the Church and the manner in which churchmen responded to new circumstances. This article explains Hope’s attitude and uses it to explore some of the causes and consequences of the Act of 1870. What type of schooling best suited the British people? Should it have a basis in something other than religion? How could the Church and its supporters meet the challenges posed by education reform?
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.
This study evaluated in a rigorous 18-month randomized controlled trial the efficacy of an enhanced vocational intervention for helping individuals with a recent first schizophrenia episode to return to and remain in competitive work or regular schooling.
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) was adapted to meet the goals of individuals whose goals might involve either employment or schooling. IPS was combined with a Workplace Fundamentals Module (WFM) for an enhanced, outpatient, vocational intervention. Random assignment to the enhanced integrated rehabilitation program (N = 46) was contrasted with equally intensive clinical treatment at UCLA, including social skills training groups, and conventional vocational rehabilitation by state agencies (N = 23). All patients were provided case management and psychiatric services by the same clinical team and received oral atypical antipsychotic medication.
The IPS–WFM combination led to 83% of patients participating in competitive employment or school in the first 6 months of intensive treatment, compared with 41% in the comparison group (p < 0.005). During the subsequent year, IPS–WFM continued to yield higher rates of schooling/employment (92% v. 60%, p < 0.03). Cumulative number of weeks of schooling and/or employment was also substantially greater with the IPS–WFM intervention (45 v. 26 weeks, p < 0.004).
The results clearly support the efficacy of an enhanced intervention focused on recovery of participation in normative work and school settings in the initial phase of schizophrenia, suggesting potential for prevention of disability.
Objectives: Good glycemic control is an important goal of diabetes management. Late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk for poor glycemic control as they move into young adulthood. For a subset of these patients, this dysregulation is extreme, placing them at risk for life-threatening health complications and permanent cognitive declines. The present study examined whether deficiency in emotional decision making (as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) among teens with T1D may represent a neurocognitive risk factor for subsequent glycemic dysregulation. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study, a total of 241 high-school seniors (147 females, 94 males) diagnosed with T1D underwent baseline assessment that included the IGT. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects glycemic control over the course of the past 2 to 3 months, was also assessed at baseline. Of the 241,189 (127 females, 62 males, mean age=17.76, mean HbA1c=8.11) completed HbA1c measurement 1 year later. Results: Baseline IGT performance in the impaired range (per norms) was associated with greater dysregulation in glycemic control 1 year later, as evidenced by an average increase in HbA1c of 2%. Those with normal IGT scores (per norms) exhibited a more moderate increase in glycemic control, with an HbA1c increase of 0.7%. Several IGT scoring approaches were compared, showing that the total scores collapsed across all trials was most sensitive to change in glycemic control. Conclusions: IGT assessment offers promise as a tool for identifying late adolescents at increased risk for glycemic dysregulation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 204–213)
This year's General Synod, the second meeting of the triennium, was held in Dún Laoghaire, to the south of Dublin. It was a hotel conference venue, albeit one new to the Synod meeting. The Synod passed Bills relating to the areas of episcopal election and part-time ministry, as well as the ongoing areas of charity legislation and pensions. A Bill relating to diocesan boundaries was withdrawn.
To provide accurate estimates of the commencement time, duration and dosage of folic acid (FA) supplementation taken by Irish women in the periconceptional period. The study also aimed to establish the factors associated with optimal FA supplementation practices.
Cross-sectional observational study. Women’s clinical and sociodemographic details were computerised. Maternal weight and height were measured before calculating BMI. Detailed FA supplementation questionnaires were completed under the supervision of a trained researcher.
A large university maternity hospital, Republic of Ireland, January 2014–April 2016.
Women (n 856) recruited at their convenience in the first trimester.
While almost all of the women (97 %) were taking FA at enrolment, only one in four women took FA for at least 12 weeks preconceptionally (n 208). Among the 44 % of women who were supplementing with FA preconceptionally, 44 % (162/370) reported taking FA for less than the 12 weeks required to achieve optimal red-blood-cell folate levels for prevention of neural tube defects. On multivariate analysis, only planned pregnancy and nulliparity were associated with taking FA for at least 12 weeks preconceptionally. Among women who only took FA postconceptionally, almost two-thirds commenced it after day 28 of their pregnancy when the neural tube had already closed.
As the timing of FA was suboptimal both before and after conception, we recommend that current national FA guidelines need to be reviewed.
Objectives: Treatments for childhood brain tumors (BT) confer substantial risks to neurological development and contribute to neuropsychological deficits in young adulthood. Evidence suggests that individuals who experience more significant neurological insult may lack insight into their neurocognitive limitations. The present study compared survivor, mother, and performance-based estimates of executive functioning (EF), and their associations with treatment intensity history in a subsample of young adult survivors of childhood BTs. Methods: Thirty-four survivors (52.9% female), aged 18 to 30 years (M=23.5; SD=3.4), 16.1 years post-diagnosis (SD=5.9), were administered self-report and performance-based EF measures. Mothers also rated survivor EF skills. Survivors were classified by treatment intensity history into Minimal, Average/Moderate, or Intensive/Most-Intensive groups. Discrepancies among survivor, mother, and performance-based EF estimates were compared. Results: Survivor-reported and performance-based measures were not correlated, although significant associations were found between mother-reported and performance measures. Survivors in the Intensive/Most-Intensive treatment group evidenced the greatest score discrepancies, reporting less executive dysfunction relative to mother-reported F(2,31)=7.81, p<.01, and performance-based measures F(14,50)=2.54, p<.05. Conversely, survivors in the Minimal treatment group reported greater EF difficulties relative to mothers t(8)=2.82, p<.05, but not performance-based estimates (ps>.05). Conclusions: There may be a lack of agreement among survivor, mother, and performance-based estimates of EF skills in young adult survivors of childhood BT, and these discrepancies may be associated with treatment intensity history. Neuropsychologists should use a multi-method, multi-reporter approach to assessment of EF in this population. Providers also should be aware of these discrepancies as they may be a barrier to intervention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 900–910)
We examined whether breast-feeding, and in particular exclusive breast-feeding, was associated with maternal weight and body composition changes at 4 months postpartum independently of other maternal variables.
Prospective longitudinal study. Women were recruited in the first trimester after an ultrasound examination confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy. Weight and body composition were measured using advanced bio-electrical impedance analysis at the first antenatal visit and 4 months postpartum. Detailed questionnaires were completed on breast-feeding, socio-economic status, diet and exercise in addition to routine clinical and sociodemographic details.
Large Irish university maternity hospital.
Women who delivered a baby weighing ≥500 g between November 2012 and March 2014.
At the postpartum visit, the mean weight was 70·9 (sd 14·2) kg (n 470) and the mean BMI was 25·9 (sd 5·0) kg/m2. ‘Any breast-feeding’ was reported by 65·1 % of women (n 306). Irish nativity (OR=0·085, P<0·001), current smoking (OR=0·385, P=0·01), relative income poverty (OR=0·421, P=0·04) and deprivation (OR=0·458, P=0·02) were negatively associated with exclusive breast-feeding. At 4 months postpartum there was no difference in maternal weight change between women who exclusively breast-fed and those who formula-fed (+2·0 v. +1·1 kg, P=0·13). Women who exclusively breast-fed had a greater increase in percentage body fat at 4 months postpartum compared with women who formula-fed (+1·0 v. −0·03 %, P=0·02), even though their dietary quality was better. Exclusive breast-feeding was not associated with postpartum maternal weight or body fat percentage change after adjusting for other maternal variables.
There are many reasons why breast-feeding should be strongly promoted but we found no evidence to support postpartum weight management as an advantage of breast-feeding.
Since the discovery in 1989 that mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians, it has been possible to identify heterozygous mutation carriers at risk of having affected children. The Human Genetics Society of Australasia has produced a position statement with recommendations in relation to population-based screening for CF. These include: (1) that screening should be offered to all relatives of people with or carriers of CF (cascade testing) as well as to all couples planning to have children or who are pregnant; (2) the minimum CFTR mutation panel to be tested consists of 17 mutations which are those mutations that are associated with typical CF and occur with a frequency of 0.1% or higher among individuals diagnosed with CF in Australasia; (3) that genetic counselling is offered to all couples where both members are known to have one or two CFTR mutations and that such couples are given the opportunity to meet with a physician with expertise in the management of CF as well as a family/individual affected by the condition.
The National Afterschool Association (NAA) standards specify the role of summer day camps (SDC) in promoting healthy nutrition habits of the children attending, identifying foods and beverages to be provided to children and staff roles in promoting good nutrition habits. However, many SDC do not provide meals. Currently, national guidelines specifying what children are allowed to bring to such settings do not exist, nor is there a solid understanding of the current landscape surrounding healthy eating within SDC.
A cross-sectional study design using validated measures with multiple observations was used to determine the types of foods and beverages brought to SDC programmes.
Four large-scale, community-based SDC participated in the study during summer 2011.
The types of foods and beverages brought by children (n 766) and staff (n 87), as well as any instances of staff promoting healthy eating behaviours, were examined via direct observation over 27 d. Additionally, the extent to which current foods and beverages at SDC complied with NAA standards was evaluated.
Less than half of the children brought water, 47 % brought non-100 % juices, 4 % brought soda, 4 % brought a vegetable and 20 % brought fruit. Staff foods and beverages modelled similar patterns. Promotion of healthy eating by staff was observed <1 % of the time.
Findings suggest that foods and beverages brought to SDC by children and staff do not support nutrition standards and staff do not regularly promote healthy eating habits. To assist, professional development, parent education and organizational policies are needed.