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Myocardial strain measurements are increasingly used to detect complications following heart transplantation. However, the temporal association of these changes with allograft rejection is not well defined. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution of strain measurements prior to the diagnosis of rejection in paediatric heart transplant recipients.
All paediatric heart transplant recipients (2004–2015) with at least one episode of acute rejection were identified. Longitudinal and circumferential strain measurements were assessed at the time of rejection and retrospectively on all echocardiograms until the most recent negative biopsy. Smoothing technique (LOESS) was used to visualise the changes of each variable over time and estimate the time preceding rejection at which alterations are first detectable.
A total of 58 rejection episodes were included from 37 unique patients. In the presence of rejection, there were decrements from baseline in global longitudinal strain (−18.2 versus −14.1), global circumferential strain (−24.1 versus −19.6), longitudinal strain rate (−1 versus −0.8), circumferential strain rate (−1.3 versus −1.1), peak longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (1.3 versus 1), and peak circumferential early diastolic strain rate (1.5 versus 1.3) (p<0.01 for all). The earliest detectable changes occurred 45 days prior to rejection with simultaneous alterations in myocardial strain and ejection fraction.
Changes in graft function can be detected non-invasively prior to the diagnosis of rejection. However, changes in strain occur concurrently with a decline in ejection fraction. Strain measurements aid in the non-invasive detection of rejection, but may not facilitate earlier diagnosis compared to more traditional measures of ventricular function.
High-density brines are used to control high pressure during oil and gas well operations. These dense brines (15 to 20 lb/gal) are solutions prepared from sale such as calcium chloride, calcium bromide, zinc bromide and/or combinations. During stages of completion, excessive losses of these expensive brines to the production zone can occur. Before the brine is reused in other oil and/or gas well operations, the brine may need to be reweighted. An analysis of the brine composition must be obtained to properly add the correct amount of salts.
Standard addition or internal standardization methods are commonly used in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) applications but negate one of the advantages of XRF-elimination of tedious sample preparation. Scattered X-ray intensity has been used successfully to correct matrix effects in XRF applications. A Compton scatter ratio method is very advantageous for samples having a low atomic number, for which the scattered intensity is high. This paper describes an XRF method for determining Ca, CI, and Zn in high-density brines as well as the matrix correction for Br using a scattered X-ray ratio technique.
Studies involving clinically recruited samples show that genetic liability to schizophrenia overlaps with that for several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depression and, in a population study, anxiety disorder and negative symptoms in adolescence.
We examined whether, at a population level, association between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders continues into adulthood, for specific anxiety disorders and as a group. We explored in an epidemiologically based cohort the nature of adult psychopathology sharing liability to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 590 European-descent individuals from the Christchurch Health and Development Study. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between schizophrenia PRS and four anxiety disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder), schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder, manic/hypomanic episode, alcohol dependence, major depression, and – using linear regression – total number of anxiety disorders. A novel population-level association with hypomania was tested in a UK birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children).
Schizophrenia PRS was associated with total number of anxiety disorders and with generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We show a novel population-level association between schizophrenia PRS and manic/hypomanic episode.
The relationship between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders is not restricted to psychopathology in adolescence but is present in adulthood and specifically linked to generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We suggest that the association between schizophrenia liability and hypomanic/manic episodes found in clinical samples may not be due to bias.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
If no two of three non-collinear points share the same x-coordinate, then the parabola y = a2x2 + a1x + a0 through the points is easily found by solving a system of linear equations. That is but one of an infinite number of parabolas through the three points. How does one find the other parabolas? In this note, we find all parabolas through any three non-collinear points by reducing the problem to finding the equation of a parabola by using rotations.
The parabola y = a2x2 + a1x + a0 has an axis of symmetry parallel to the y-axis. Other parabolas have an axis of symmetry that is parallel to some line y = mx. We focus on the angle θ that the axis of symmetry makes with the y-axis, as in Figure 1, so that tanθ = 1/m. To find the parabola associated with θ that goes through three non-collinear points, we rotate the three points counterclockwise by θ, find the equation of the parabola, and then rotate the parabola (and the three points) counterclockwise back by −θ so that the parabola goes through the original points.
The commercial release of crops with engineered resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba will alter the spatial and temporal use of these herbicides. This, in turn, has elicited concerns about off-target injury to sensitive crops. In 2014 and 2015, studies were conducted in Tifton, GA, to describe how herbicide (2,4-D and dicamba), herbicide rate (1/75 and 1/250 field use), and application timing (20, 40, and 60 DAP) influence watermelon injury, vine development, yield, and the accumulation of herbicide residues in marketable fruit. In general, greater visual injury and reductions in vine growth, relative to the non-treated check, were observed when herbicide applications were made before watermelon plants had begun to flower. Although the main effects of herbicide and rate were less influential than the timing of applications with respect to plant development, the 1/75 rates were more injurious than the 1/250 rates; dicamba was more injurious than 2,4-D. In 2014, the 1/75 and 1/250 rates of each herbicide reduced marketable fruit numbers 13 to 20%, but only for the 20 DAP application. The 1/75 rate of each herbicide when applied at either 20 or 40 DAP reduced the number of fruit harvested per plot in 2015. Dicamba residues were detected in marketable fruit when the 1/75 rate in 2014 and 2015 and the 1/250 rate in 2015 was applied to plants at 40 or 60 DAP. Residues of 2,4-D were detected in 2015 when the 1/75 and 1/250 rates were applied at 60 DAP. Across both years, the maximum level of residue detected was 0.030 ppm. While early season injury may reduce watermelon yields, herbicide residue detection is more likely in marketable fruit when an off-target contact incident occurs closer to harvest.
The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is planned for launch by NASA in 2001 in a heliocentric orbit at 1.01 AU The spacecraft will drift away from the Earth slowly, reaching a distance of 0.3 AU behind the Earth at the end of its 2.5 year mission. This implies that SIRTF will spiral through the Earth's resonant dust ring (Wright et al., 1995) and, in particular, that it will traverse the dust cloud in the ring that trails the Earth in its orbit. We have used a dynamical model of the ring (Dermott et al., 1994) followed by simulation of the SIRTF orbit to predict the variations in the zodiacal thermal emission due to the trailing dust cloud as seen by SIRTF. Because the dust ring is inclined to the ecliptic, the latitude of peak flux of the trailing cloud will have yearly oscillations about the ecliptic. The amplitude of the oscillations will increase as SIRTF approaches the cloud, reaching a maximum of 20 during the mission. The magnitude of the flux variations can be as high as 4 – 5% or 2–3 MJy/Sr, SIRTF's measurements of these effects will allow us to model the number density and thermal characteristics of asteroidal dust particles near the Earth.
Germplasm of common beans from the Mesoamerican gene pool races: Durango, Jalisco, Mesoamerica and Guatemala have highest genetic variation for the crop's improvement. The objective was to assign 50 common bean germplasm in Uganda into its gene pool races based on analyses of population structure. Secondly, to estimate heritability and effects of genotype × environment (GXE) interaction on common bean agronomic and yield traits in space and time. Sample genomic DNA was amplified in 2011 with 22 Simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) and alleles separated using capillary electrophoresis. Field evaluations were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at NaCRRI and 2015 at CIAT – Kawanda. Multivariate analyses of SSRs data identified four subgroups within the germplasm: K4.1–K4.4, with corresponding Wrights fixation indices (FST) as 0.1829 for K4.1, 0.1585 for K4.4, 0.1579 for K4.2 and least for K4.3 at 0.0678. Gene pool race admixtures in the population (14%) were notable and attributed to gene flow. Four superior parents currently used in improving resistance to major diseases grouped as; Jalisco for MLB49-89A; Mesoamerica for MCM5001 and G2333; Durango for MEXICO 54. Heritability values for yield traits estimated using phenotypic data from above fixed parents, was above 0.81. Season and location had significant effect (P < 0.05) on numbers of: flower buds per inflorescence, pod formation and weight of 100 seeds. The findings will improve understanding of co-evolutionary relationships between bean hosts and pathogens for better disease management and will broaden the germplasm base for improving other tropical production constraints.
Enlist™ cotton contains the aad-12 and pat genes that confer resistance to 2,4-D and glufosinate, respectively. Thirty-three field trials were conducted focused on Enlist cotton injury from glufosinate as affected by cotton growth stage, application rate, and single or sequential applications. Maximum injury from a single application of typical 1X (542 g ae ha-1) and 2X use rates was 3 and 13%, respectively, regardless of growth stage. Injury from sequential applications of 1X or 2X rates was equivalent to single applications. Similar injury was observed with four commercial formulations of glufosinate. Cotton yield was never affected by glufosinate. This research demonstrates Enlist™ cotton has robust resistance to glufosinate at rates at least twice the typical use rate when applied once or twice at growth stages ranging from 2 to 12 leaves.
The analysis of multilayer networks is among the most active areas of network science, and there are several methods to detect dense “communities” of nodes in multilayer networks. One way to define a community is as a set of nodes that trap a diffusion-like dynamical process (usually a random walk) for a long time. In this view, communities are sets of nodes that create bottlenecks to the spreading of a dynamical process on a network. We analyze the local behavior of different random walks on multiplex networks (which are multilayer networks in which different layers correspond to different types of edges) and show that they have very different bottlenecks, which correspond to rather different notions of what it means for a set of nodes to be a good community. This has direct implications for the behavior of community-detection methods that are based on these random walks.
Classical Be stars are rapidly rotating stars with circumstellar disks that come and go on time scale of years. Recent observational data strongly suggests that these stars lack the 10% incidence of global magnetic fields observed in other main-sequence B stars. Such an apparent lack of magnetic fields may indicate that Be disks are fundamentally incompatible with a significant large scale magnetic field. In this work, using numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we show that a dipole field of only 100G can lead to the quick disruption of a Be disk. Such a limit is in line with the observational upper limits for these objects.