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Use of rhetorical figures has been an element of persuasive speech at least since Gorgias of Leontini, for whom such deliberate deviations from ordinary literal language were a defining feature of what he called the ‘psychagogic art’. But must we consider figures of speech limited to an ornamental and merely stylistic function, as some ancient and still many modern theorists suggest? Not according to contemporary cognitive rhetoric, which proposes that figures of speech can play a fundamentally argumentative role in speech by evoking a level of shared meaning between speaker and listener, and simultaneously by affording the possibility of reorganizing this common ground. This paper argues that, in Latin literature, zeugma—the ‘linking together’ of two elements (usually nouns or prepositional phrases) with a third (usually a verb) that is semantically compatible with only one of them—can and very often does operate argumentatively, and that it does so by surfacing figurative relationships that normally remain below the conscious awareness of Latin speakers and by imparting a certain structure to these relationships. What very often motivates the selection of elements within zeugma—and what makes zeugma more than simply a stylistic device—are in fact metaphorical structures that are highly conventionalized in Latin's semantic system. In tapping into symbolic associations that are deeply entrenched in the language and thought of Latin speakers, zeugma therefore provided a ready-made device for constructing arguments in context.
The value of decolonization as a strategy for preventing methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) remains to be determined.
After adding decolonization to further reduce MRSA transmission in our NICU, we conducted this retrospective review to evaluate its effectiveness.
The review included patients who were admitted to our NICU between April 2015 and June 2018 and were eligible for decolonization including twice daily intranasal mupirocin and daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing over 5 consecutive days. Patients were considered successfully decolonized if 3 subsequent MRSA screenings conducted at 1-week intervals were negative. The MRSA acquisition rate (AR) was calculated as hospital-acquired (HA) MRSA per 1,000 patient days (PD) and was used to measure the effectiveness of the decolonization.
Of the 151 MRSA patients being reviewed, 78 (51.6%) were HA-MRSA, resulting in an overall AR of 1.27 per 1,000 PD. Between April 2015 and February 2016, when only the decolonization was added, the AR was 2.38 per 1,000 PD. Between March 2016 and June 2018 after unit added a technician dedicated to the cleaning of reusable equipment, the AR decreased significantly to 0.92 per 1,000 PD (P < .05). Of the 78 patients who were started on the decolonization, 49 (62.8%) completed the protocol, 11 (14.1%) remained colonized, and 13 (16.7%) were recolonized prior to NICU discharge.
In a NICU with comprehensive MRSA prevention measures in place, enhancing the cleaning of reusable equipment, not decolonization, led to significant reduction of MRSA transmission.
Structure–property relationships are the foundation of materials science and are essential for predicting material response to driving forces, managing in-service material degradation, and engineering materials for optimal performance. Elastic, thermal, and acoustic properties provide a convenient gateway to directly or indirectly probe materials structure across multiple length scales. This article will review how using the laser-induced transient grating spectroscopy (TGS) technique, which uses a transient diffraction grating to generate surface acoustic waves and temperature gratings on a material surface, nondestructively reveals the material’s elasticity, thermal diffusivity, and energy dissipation on the sub-microsecond time scale, within a tunable subsurface depth. This technique has already been applied to many challenging problems in materials characterization, from analysis of radiation damage, to colloidal crystals, to phonon-mediated thermal transport in nanostructured systems, to crystal orientation and lattice parameter determination. Examples of these applications, as well as inferring aspects of microstructural evolution, illustrate the wide potential reach of TGS to solve old materials challenges and to uncover new science. We conclude by looking ahead at the tremendous potential of TGS for materials discovery and optimization when applied in situ to dynamically evolving systems.
The culmination of a project aimed at showcasing, in a systematic way, the potential of applying anthropological perspectives to classical studies, this volume highlights the fundamental contribution this approach has to make to our understanding of ancient Roman culture. Through the close study of themes such as myth, polytheism, sacrifice, magic, space, kinship, the gift, friendship, economics, animals, plants, riddles, metaphors, and images in Roman society (often in comparison with Greece) - where the texts of ancient culture are allowed to speak in their own terms and where the experience of the natives (rather than the horizon of the observer) is privileged - a rich panorama emerges of the worldview, beliefs, and deep structures that shaped and guided this culture.