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To describe variation in blood culture practices in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Survey of neonatal practitioners involved with blood culturing and NICU-level policy development.
We included 28 NICUs in a large antimicrobial stewardship quality improvement program through the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative.
Web-based survey of bedside blood culture practices and NICU- and laboratory-level practices. We evaluated adherence to recommended practices.
Most NICUs did not have a procedural competency (54%), did not document the sample volume (75%), did not receive a culture contamination report (57%), and/or did not require reporting to the provider if <1 mL blood was obtained (64%). The skin asepsis procedure varied across NICUs. Only 71% had a written procedure, but ≥86% changed the needle and disinfected the bottle top prior to inoculation. More than one-fifth of NICUs draw a culture from an intravascular device only (if present). Of 13 modifiable practices related to culture and contamination, NICUs with nurse practitioners more frequently adopted >50% of practices, compared to units without (92% vs 50% of units; P < .02).
In the NICU setting, recommended practices for blood culturing were not routinely performed.
Exertional syncope has been suggested to correlate with a cardiac aetiology, particularly when occurring in mid-stride. The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence of cardiac disease among children presenting with exertional syncope, determine the influence of timing within activity, and determine the utility of genetic testing and implantable event monitors in the evaluation of cardiac syncope. The patients ≤18 years old with exertional syncope who underwent exercise stress testing between 2008 and 2019 were retrospectively included. Patients were assessed to be in one of three groups: mid-exertion (mid-stride syncope), peri-exertion (syncope during activity but not moving), and post-exertion (within minutes of the activity). A total of 334 patients were included; 46 % were mid-exertion, 18 % were peri-exertion, and 36 % were post-exertion. Thirteen patients (3.8 %) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope; n = 9 (69 %) mid-exertion. Only mid-exertional syncope was significantly associated with a cardiac diagnosis (OR: 2.6). Cardiac diagnoses included inherited arrhythmia syndromes (n = 9), abnormal coronary origins (n = 2), and supraventricular tachycardia (n = 2). Only catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 5) was associated with mid-exertional syncope (OR: 1.4). The definitive diagnostic test was exercise testing (n = 8), echocardiogram (n = 2), genetic testing (n = 1), ambulatory monitor (n = 1), and EKG (n = 1). Mid-stride syncope was more likely to result in a cardiac diagnosis, and exercise testing is the most common definitive test as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia was the primary aetiology of exertional syncope in our cohort. Implantable event monitors and genetic testing could be helpful in ruling out cardiac disease.
When Hurricane Harvey landed along the Texas coast on August 25, 2017, it caused massive flooding and damage and displaced tens of thousands of residents of Harris County, Texas. Between August 29 and September 23, Harris County, along with community partners, operated a megashelter at NRG Center, which housed 3365 residents at its peak. Harris County Public Health conducted comprehensive public health surveillance and response at NRG, which comprised disease identification through daily medical record reviews, nightly “cot-to-cot” resident health surveys, and epidemiological consultations; messaging and communications; and implementation of control measures including stringent isolation and hygiene practices, vaccinations, and treatment. Despite the lengthy operation at the densely populated shelter, an early seasonal influenza A (H3) outbreak of 20 cases was quickly identified and confined. Influenza outbreaks in large evacuation shelters after a disaster pose a significant threat to populations already experiencing severe stressors. A holistic surveillance and response model, which consists of coordinated partnerships with onsite agencies, in-time epidemiological consultations, predesigned survey tools, trained staff, enhanced isolation and hygiene practices, and sufficient vaccines, is essential for effective disease identification and control. The lessons learned and successes achieved from this outbreak may serve for future disaster response settings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:97-101)
Hydromagnetic surface waves propagating on the surface of a finitely conducting fluid are studied experimentally and theoretically. An alternating magnetic field is used, so that the field is largely excluded from the bulk of the fluid. Thus, the magnetic damping of the waves is negligible, and the perfectly conducting d.c. case is simulated. The effects of a finite electromagnetic skin depth, δ, are included in the calculation of the theoretical wave dispersion relation. It is predicted that as δ is increased and becomes comparable to the wavelength of the surface wave, the effect of the magnetic field on the fluid motion is decreased. This prediction is confirmed experimentally.
The in vitro activities of bacitracin and mupirocin were compared for seven different strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Six of seven strains showed bacitracin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5 to 1.0 units/mL, and all seven had mupirocin MICs of 0.5 to 2 μg/mL. Time-kill studies revealed 2.6- to 4.5-log reduction in 24 hours with strains susceptible to bacitracin (4 units/mL) and 0 to 2.2 reduction with mupirocin (16 μg/mL). Bacitracin should be considered further for in vivo studies because of enhanced bacteriocidal effect and lower cost.
Fifty-one patients with a primary major depressive disorder preceded by a stressful environmental event were compared for their response to pharmacological treatment with 75 depressives who experienced no stressful life event before illness episodes. There was no difference between the groups in treatment response rates after four and six weeks of treatment respectively.
One hundred and sixteen patients with major depressive disorder were asked for details of headaches during a depressive episode and during a nondepressed period. They experienced a headache rate similar to controls during the nondepressed period, but had an increased headache rate during depression (P <.02). Patients with an increase in depressive headaches were younger, had more somatic complaints, and experienced more hypersomnia than other depressives.
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