To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The expansion of populations of invasive species continues to compromise the ecological and economic integrity of our natural resources. The negative effects of invasive species on native biota are widely reported. However, less is known about how the duration (i.e., age of oldest invaders) and intensity (i.e., density and percent cover) of an invasion influences native plant diversity and abundance at the microsite scale. We examined the influence of density, percent cover, and age of Amur honeysuckle (a nonnative invasive shrub), and several environmental factors on native plant taxa at 12 mixed hardwood forests in Indiana, USA. Overall, study sites with the greatest taxonomic diversity (Shannon's Diversity; H′), richness (S), percent cover, and density of native vegetation also had the lowest percent cover of Amur honeysuckle in the upper vertical stratum (1.01 to 5 m). Based on linear mixed model analyses, percent cover of Amur honeysuckle in the upper vertical stratum was consistently and negatively correlated with H′, S, total percent cover, and woody seedling density of native taxa at the microsite scale (P < 0.05). Duration of Amur honeysuckle at the microsite scale was not significant when percent cover of Amur honeysuckle in the upper vertical stratum was included in models. However, duration of Amur honeysuckle invasion was significantly correlated with dependent variables and with upper-stratum honeysuckle cover, suggesting that older Amur honeysuckle in a microsite resulted in greater light competition from above for native understory plant species. Beyond increased cover and shading, our results do not provide evidence of duration-related effects from long-term dominance of honeysuckle in our sampled mixed hardwood forest sites.
This study tests competing models of the relation between depression and polysubstance use over the course of adolescence. Participants included a nationwide sample of adolescents (N = 3,604), ages 12 to 17 at study Wave 1, assessed annually for 3 years. Models were tested using cohort-sequential latent growth curve modeling to determine whether depressive symptoms at baseline predicted concurrent and age-related changes in drug use, whether drug use at baseline predicted concurrent and age-related changes in depressive symptoms, and whether initial levels of depression predicted changes in substance use significantly better than vice versa. The results suggest a transactional model such that early polysubstance use promotes early depressive symptoms, which in turn convey elevated risk for increasing polysubstance use over time, which in turn conveys additional risk for future depressive symptoms, even after accounting for gender, ethnicity, and household income. In contrast, early drug use did not portend risk for future depressive symptoms. These findings suggest a complicated pattern of interrelations over time and indicate that many current models of co-occurring polysubstance use and depressive symptoms may not fully account for these associations. Instead, the results suggest a developmental cascade, in which symptoms of one disorder promote symptoms of the other across intrapersonal domains.
Background: Differences in the level of cognitive compromise between individuals following brain injury are thought to arise from underlying differences in cognitive reserve. The level of cognitive reserve attained by an individual is influenced by both genetic and life experience factors such as educational attainment and occupational history. The Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project (THBP) is a world-first prospective study examining the capacity of university-level education to enhance cognitive reserve in older adults and subsequently reduce age-related cognitive decline and risk for neurodegenerative disease.
Methods: Up to 1,000 adults aged 50–79 years at the time of entry into the study will be recruited to participate in the THBP. All participants will be healthy and free of significant medical, psychological, or psychiatric illness. Of the participant sample, 90% will undertake a minimum of 12 months part-time university-level study as an intervention. The remaining 10% will act as a control reference group. Participants will complete an annual comprehensive assessment of neuropsychological function, medical health, socialization, and personal well-being. Premorbid estimates of past cognitive, education, occupational, and physical function will be used to account for the mediating influence of prior life experience on outcomes. Potential contributing genetic factors will also be explored.
Results: Participant results will be assessed annually. Participants displaying evidence of dementia on the comprehensive neuropsychological assessment will be referred to an independent psycho-geriatrician for screening and diagnosis.
Conclusions: The THBP commenced in 2011 and is expected to run for 10–20 years duration. To date, a total of 383 participants have been recruited into the THBP.
The 6dF Galaxy Survey is measuring around 150 000 redshifts and 15 000 peculiar velocities from galaxies over the southern sky at |b| > 10°. When complete, it will be the largest survey of its kind by more than an order of magnitude. Here we describe the characteristics of the Second Incremental Data Release and provide an update of the survey. This follows earlier data made public in 2002 December and 2004 March. A total of 83 014 sources now have their spectra, redshifts, and near-infrared and optical photometry available online and searchable through an Structured Query Language database at www-wfau.roe.ac.uk/6dFGS/.
First identified in 2009 as the site with the lowest precipitable water vapour (PWV) and best terahertz transmission on Earth, “Ridge A” is located approximately 150 km south of Dome A, Antarctica. We use three years of data from the Microwave Humidity Sensor (MHS) on the NOAA-18 satellite and recent ground-based measurements from Ridge A to probe the PWV variations and stability over the high Antarctic plateau.
Previous research in Australia has inferred that materialism and its possession-defined ‘Success’ subtheme described by Richins and Dawson (1992) has characteristics in common with specific Type A behaviour including competitiveness and aggression. Given that Australian materialists appear to have similar inclinations to their North American counterparts, assumptions by the latter that materialism and Type A behaviour fall under the same cultural value of work and wealth might also be applicable in Australia. Hence, the present study aims to explore the relationship between materialism and Type A behaviour, with psychometric measures of each administered to 193 Australian participants. Scores on Materialism were positively correlated with Type A behaviours, while the Success subscale was only significantly correlated with the second Type A item, assessing competitiveness. However, while materialistic pursuits might provide a culturally sanctioned outlet for competitive behaviours deriving from existing Type A personalities, it could also be argued that contemporary consumer society encourages such behaviours.
Adenoidectomy Is A Surgical Procedure Frequently Carried Out In Otolaryngological Practice, Traditionally Undertaken Blindly With Curettage Using An Adenotome Following Palpation Of The Adenoid Bed. While A Number Of Alternative Methods Have Been Described For Surgical Removal Of The Adenoid Pad (Power-Assisted/Microdebrider, Transnasal Adenoid Ablation, Suction Coagulation And Liquefaction/Aspiration) None Has Become The Definitive Procedure. Suction Diathermy Adenoidectomy Has Been Known And Used For Some Time; It Has Gained In Popularity Over Recent Years And Is Established As An Alternative To Conventional Curettage, Particularly In Children.
We Describe Several Techniques Which Improve The View Of The Surgical Field While Performing Suction Diathermy Adenoid Ablation.
We studied the effects of inundative releases of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on economic injury by grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Trichogramma minutum originally collected from natural host populations near North East, Pennsylvania, was mass produced in tobacco hornworm hosts and Mediterranean flour moth. We released T. minutum in border rows, where grape berry moth infestation is typically high, of experiment field station and commercial vineyards from 1996 to 1999. We recorded significant reductions in economic injury in plots where parasitoids were released. In vineyards with low to moderate grape berry moth abundance, four releases during the growing season were adequate in reducing damage at harvest to below 3%. In high-risk vineyards, T. minutum releases reduced damage to levels below 15%. The use of buckwheat as a cover crop to provide nectar in combination with parasitoid releases showed potential benefits in parasitoid activity. A biocarrier and Biosprayer™ were used in mechanized parasitoid-release operations, and no adverse effect on parasitoid emergence was recorded from parasitized eggs using this approach.
The grape beny moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens), is the key pest of cultivated grapes in the eastern United States and Canada (Gleissner 1943; Ker 1990). Laboratory techniques have been developed for large-scale rearing of this tortricid (Taschenberg 1951, 1969) using grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and locally grown varieties. The use of grape berries is unsatisfactory because berries attract fruit flies, develop mold, and rot rapidly at normal laboratory temperatures (Taschenberg 1969). In this paper, we describe a diet for rearing E. viteana and the process that was undertaken in its development.
The Australian Oxford Dictionary (1992) defines materialism means an “excessive concern for material possessions” which according to critics is likely to be associated with dissatisfaction (eg, Fromm, 1955; Cushman, 1990, Harman, 1996). Despite this, materialism has often been referred to as a predominant American value (eg, Funkhouser, 1989) and also an Australian one (Hawkins, Neal, Quester & Best, 1994). The present study aims to assess the relationship between Materialism and Life Satisfaction amongst Australians.
Functionalized block copolymers were synthesized as adhesion promoters using Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP). They were designed for glass/epoxy and copper/epoxy interfaces. The former contained triethoxysilane groups in the first block and secondary amine groups in the second. The latter contained imidazole groups in the first and amine groups in the second block. These block copolymers were shown to form ordered monolayers on the respective glass and copper surfaces using neutron reflectivity. Adhesion measurements showed an enhancement of adhesion after application of these block copolymers.