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Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
The approach taken to support individuals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic needs to take into account the requirements of people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism, who represent a major vulnerable group, with higher rates of co-occurring health conditions and a greater risk of dying prematurely. To date, little evidence on COVID-related concerns have been produced and no report has provided structured feedback from the point of view of people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism or of their family/carers.
To provide systemised evidence-based information of the priority concerns for people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.
Senior representatives of major UK-based professional and service-user representative organisations with a stake in the care of people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism were contacted to provide a list of concerns across three domains: ‘mental health and challenging behaviour’, ‘physical health and epilepsy’ and ‘social circumstances and support’. The feedback was developed into statements on frequently reported priorities. These statements were then rated independently by expert clinicians. A video-conference meeting to reconcile outliers and to generate a consensus statement list was held.
Thirty-two organisations were contacted, of which 26 (81%) replied. From the respondent's data, 30 draft consensus statements were generated. Following expert clinician review, there was initially strong consensus for seven statements (23%), increasing to 27 statements (90%) following video conferencing.
These recommendations highlight the expectations of people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism in the current pandemic. This could support policymakers and professionals’ deliver and evidence person-centred care.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
The majority of highly efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLED) contain PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) as hole transport layer (HTL). However, the hygroscopic and acidic nature of PEDOT:PSS may lead to deterioration of PeLED performance. Moreover, due to its inferior electron-blocking properties, an additional electron-blocking layer (EBL) is required to establish charge balance and consequently obtain superior emission characteristics in typically electron-rich PeLED structures. In this work, PTAA (poly(bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine)) serving both as HTL and EBL is employed to substitute PEDOT:PSS in PeLED. The perovskite CsPbBr3 is chosen as emissive layer (EML) material due to its high color purity and photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield. Dense CsPbBr3 films are fabricated on PTAA-coated ITO substrates by employing a one-step spin-coating approach based on nonstoichiometric perovskite precursor solutions. To suppress non-radiative recombination, a small amount of methylammonium bromide (MABr) is incorporated in the CsPbBr3 lattice. The resulting films exhibit excellent coverage and PL intensity. PeLED containing pure CsPbBr3 films as EML show a green emission with a peak at 520 nm, maximum luminance of 11,000 cd/m2, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3.3 % and a current efficiency (CE) of 10.3 cd/A. Further enhancement to 21,000 cd/m2, 7.5 % and 27.0 cd/A is demonstrated by PeLED with MABr-doped CsPbBr3 layers.
In this article, we describe two experiments measuring the impact of a collection of interventions informed by behavioural sciences to reduce unemployment. In a small-scale pilot study (n = 2,383) run in partnership with a Jobcentre in the UK, we found that small changes to the way jobseekers interacted with employment advisers showed promising effects. Based on these findings, we refined our intervention and tested it in a second, larger trial (n = 88,033) across 12 Jobcentres in the UK. We found that our intervention significantly increased off-flow from benefits. These experiments demonstrate that policies and programmes aimed at reducing unemployment can benefit greatly from a deeper understanding of the behaviours of jobseekers and employment advisers. Further, we suggest that this approach could have positive implications for other areas of public policy.
In the past years, numerous alternative cations to replace Pb2+ in perovskite solar cells have been investigated. In terms of toxicity and chemical stability, methylammonium bismuth iodide [(CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 or MBI] containing the Bi3+ cation has been considered as a promising material. However, fabrication of coherent MBI films remains challenging. Recently, significant progress has been achieved by using vapor deposition processes. Compared with solution-processed ones, vapor-deposited MBI solar cells show higher fill factors and efficiencies. In this work, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of MBI is investigated. Employing nitrogen as carrier gas, the precursors bismuth iodide (BiI3) and methylammonium iodide (MAI) are deposited sequentially over several cycles and form MBI during the process. In order to form dense and coherent layers, the lengths of the deposition cycles as well as the substrate temperature have been optimized. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the strong influence of both parameters on growth and crystal properties. Optimized films of MBI integrated into solar cells show that CVD of MBI is a promising method for fabricating large-area solar cells.
The use of behavioural sciences in government has expanded and matured in the last decade. Since the Behavioural Insights Team (BIT) has been part of this movement, we sketch out the history of the team and the current state of behavioural public policy, recognising that other works have already told this story in detail. We then set out two clusters of issues that have emerged from our work at BIT. The first cluster concerns current challenges facing behavioural public policy: the long-term effects of interventions; repeated exposure effects; problems with proxy measures; spillovers and general equilibrium effects and unintended consequences; cultural variation; ‘reverse impact’; and the replication crisis. The second cluster concerns opportunities: influencing the behaviour of government itself; scaling interventions; social diffusion; nudging organisations; and dealing with thorny problems. We conclude that the field will need to address these challenges and take these opportunities in order to realise the full potential of behavioural public policy.