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The approach of functional integration has the potential to solve challenges regarding lightweight design and resource efficiency since the number of parts and therefore the weight and needed installation space can be reduced. One important step in developing integrative concepts is the pre-selection of suitable functions or components. Previous methods of pre-selection take various aspects into account. However, pre-selection based on these methods usually requires additional tables and forms, whose preparation and editing quickly becomes time-consuming. At the same time, most of the development engineers are working on CAD models. However, their use in the selection of suitable integration partners is not yet supported sufficiently. The development of more than 80 concepts on five different vehicles has shown that the consideration of geometric properties (position, orientation, size) is effective, as they can be identified with minimal analysis effort while working on CAD. In this paper a four-step procedure is presented how integration partners can be identified directly on the basis of CAD models. A following evaluation with development engineers in practice completes the research.
Diets varying in SFA and MUFA content can impact glycaemic control; however, whether underlying differences in genetic make-up can influence blood glucose responses to these dietary fatty acids is unknown. We examined the impact of dietary oils varying in SFA/MUFA content on changes in blood glucose levels (primary outcome) and whether these changes were modified by variants in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene (secondary outcome). Obese men and women participating in the randomised, crossover, isoenergetic, controlled-feeding Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial II consumed three dietary oils for 6 weeks, with washout periods of ˜6 weeks between each treatment. Diets studied included a high SFA/low MUFA Control oil (36·6 % SFA/28·2 % MUFA), a conventional canola oil (6·2 % SFA/63·1 % MUFA) and a high-oleic acid canola oil (5·8 % SFA/74·7 % MUFA). No differences in fasting blood glucose were observed following the consumption of the dietary oils. However, when stratified by SCD genotypes, significant SNP-by-treatment interactions on blood glucose response were found with additive models for rs1502593 (P = 0·01), rs3071 (P = 0·02) and rs522951 (P = 0·03). The interaction for rs3071 remained significant (P = 0·005) when analysed with a recessive model, where individuals carrying the CC genotype showed an increase (0·14 (sem 0·09) mmol/l) in blood glucose levels with the Control oil diet, but reductions in blood glucose with both MUFA oil diets. Individuals carrying the AA and AC genotypes experienced reductions in blood glucose in response to all three oils. These findings identify a potential new target for personalised nutrition approaches aimed at improving glycaemic control.
Survival rates for paediatric cancers have increased dramatically since the 1970s, but childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk for several chronic diseases throughout life. Nutrition interventions promoting healthy family meals may support wellness for survivors, but little research has explored CCS family food preparation habits. The goal of the present study was to describe and compare food preparation practices of CCS and non-CCS families.
Typical evening meal preparation events were observed and recorded in participant homes. Recordings and notes were analysed using the Healthy Cooking Index (HCI), a measure of nutrition-optimizing food preparation practices relevant to survivor wellness. Demographics, BMI and nutrient composition of prepared meals were also collected.
Forty parents with a CCS or non-CCS child aged 5–17 years were recruited.
There were no major differences between the CCS and non-CCS families with regard to summative HCI score or specific food preparation behaviours. Meals prepared by CCS and non-CCS families had similar nutrient compositions.
The study revealed areas for practical nutrition intervention in CCS and non-CCS families. Future studies should consider adopting and tailoring nutrition intervention methods that have been successful in non-CCS communities.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated.
To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period.
Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions.
Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%–16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%–4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.
PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden.
To assess clinically relevant outcomes after complete cessation of control measures for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
Quasi-experimental ecological study over 3.5 years.
All VRE screening and isolation practices at 4 large academic hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were stopped on July 1, 2012. In total, 618 anonymized abstracted charts of patients with VRE-positive clinical isolates identified between July 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, were reviewed to determine whether the case was a true VRE infection, a VRE colonization or contaminant, or a true VRE bacteremia. All deaths within 30 days of the last VRE infection were also reviewed to determine whether the death was fully or partially attributable to VRE. All-cause mortality was evaluated over the study period. Generalized estimating equation methods were used to cluster outcome rates within hospitals, and negative binomial models were created for each outcome.
The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for VRE infections was 0.59 and the associated P value was .34. For VRE bacteremias, the IRR was 0.54 and P=.38; for all-cause mortality the IRR was 0.70 and P=.66; and for VRE attributable death, the IRR was 0.35 and P=.49. VRE control measures were not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. Rates of all outcomes appeared to increase during the 18-month period after cessation of VRE control measures, but none reached statistical significance.
Clinically significant VRE outcomes remain rare. Cessation of all control measures for VRE had no significant attributable adverse clinical impact.
“Colombia” did not exist as a country until the nineteenth century. Therefore, the field “Colonial Literature of Colombia” is a designation for the convenience of those who wish to construct a nation-centric literary history. “The New Kingdom of Granada” (El Nuevo Reino de Granada), so named by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada to honor Granada, where he had lived before going to the New World (Ruíz Rivera xxi; Ramos 306–7), was an administrative region created in the sixteenth century larger than present-day Colombia. In 1717 the Crown established the “Vice-royalty of New Granada” (El Virreino de Nueva Granada), which included modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela, as well as parts of the Guyanas, Brazil, Peru, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Santa Fe de Bogotá was its capital. Around the middle of the eighteenth century, Nueva Granada began a fundamental transformation that ended with the declaration of independence on July 20, 1810, or in 1819, when the Vice-royalty of New Granada was dissolved. “La Gran Colombia” succeeded the vice-royalty and was at first roughly contiguous with it. However, Simón Bolívar's dream of an enduring Gran Colombia, with a centralized administration, failed by 1831. Its territories were lopped off bit by bit until the last one, Panama, seceded in 1903, “encouraged” by the United States.
An argument could be made for including in the present essay the major texts, whatever their genres, produced between 1492 and 1819 in the New Kingdom of Granada and the Vice-royalty of New Granada because those regions were a single administrative colonial domain. However, this essay is limited to Spanish-language authors and literary texts – and occasionally to the more inclusively designated “colonial discourse” – produced during the colonial era up to the early eighteenth century in the region demarcated by the boundary lines of present-day Colombia.
Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (Spain, 1856–1912) is generally credited with establishing the literary history of Spanish America as a “field,” with his Historia de la poesía hispano-americana. Three scholars dominate the field of Colombian literary history and are considered pioneering and indispensable. José María Vergara y Vergara (d. 1872) wrote Historia de la literatura en Nueva Granada, which has been available in several editions since its first publication in 1867. Antonio Gómez Restrepo (d. 1946) published Historia de la literatura colombiana in 1938 and 1945.
A policy consensus has not been reached regarding discontinuing contact precautions in patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We found that as many as 72% of outpatients flagged for past MRSA were no longer carriers, and a single nasal PCR test provided a reasonable negative predictive value for removing contact precautions.
BaTiO3 crystals, grown by Remeika method, were studied by means of acoustic emission and dielectric response. It is established, that the phase transition in the surface layer occurs on 13 °C below in comparing with the crystals bulk. It is observed, that the imaginary dielectric response of a crystal surface layer exhibits an essential smearing and slight frequency shift to higher temperatures. Reasons of such properties are discussed from a viewpoint of diffusive phase transition, taking place in the surface layer, enriched by K+ ions from KF flux.
What we call “descriptions” are instruments for particular uses/applications. Think of a machine-drawing, a cross-section, an elevation with measures, that an engineer has before him. Thinking of a description as a word-picture of the facts has something misleading about it: One tends to think only of pictures, as they hang on our walls; they appear simply to portray how a thing looks like, what it is like.
(Wittgenstein, 1953/1997, p. 99, my translation)
The purpose of this chapter is to articulate a perspective on the nature of representation in engineering that has been developed on the basis of ethnographic and sociological studies across science and technology. It is a sociocultural and cultural-historical perspective that has some decided advantages over the “cognitive approach” for the teaching of engineering, an approach that has an exclusive focus on what goes on in the mind and hidden from view. Consistent with the social-psychological diction that all higher cognitive functions are societal relations that come to shape those who participate in them (Vygotsky, 1989), this chapter focuses on the social dimensions of representations because these are the origin of anything that we may attribute to the mind. But because these social dimensions are what we subsequently attribute to mind, the perspective developed here also is a cognitive one. However, rather than speculating about hidden mental processes, this approach allows us to study psychological functions in the very public arena where they originate. We may express this fundamental fact in the following aphorism: engineering representations are in the mind because they are integral to the societal relations engineers entertain. Among those who study representations-in-use, the term “inscription” tends to be employed. Inscriptions include diagrams, photographs, formulas, and tables, that is, anything other than language that features in scientific research and communication. In this chapter, I move from the term representation to inscription, because the latter allows us to eschew the frequent confusion between “internal” and “external” representations. I present some of the advantages for engineering education that come with this way of thinking about representational engineering knowledge.
We present an efficient implementation of volumetric anisotropic image diffusion filters on modern programmable graphics processing units (GPUs), where the mathematics behind volumetric diffusion is effectively reduced to the diffusion in 2D images. We hereby avoid the computational bottleneck of a time consuming eigenvalue decomposition in ℝ3. Instead, we use a projection of the Hessian matrix along the surface normal onto the tangent plane of the local isodensity surface and solve for the remaining two tangent space eigenvectors. We derive closed formulas to achieve this and prevent the GPU code from branching. We show that our most complex volumetric anisotropic diffusion filters gain a speed up of more than 600 compared to a CPU solution.
The release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel in contact with water is controlled by two processes – the dissolution of the UO2 grains and the rapid release of fission products segregated either to the gap between the fuel and the cladding or to the UO2 grain boundaries. The rapid release is often referred to as the Instant Release Fraction (IRF) and is of interest for the safety assessment of geological repositories for spent fuel due to the potential dose contribution.
Previous studies have shown that the instant release fraction can be correlated to the fission gas release (FGR) from the spent fuel. Studies comparing results from samples in the form of pellets, fragments, powders and a fuel rodlet have shown that the sample preparation has a significant impact on the instant release, indicating that the differentiation between gap release and grain boundary release should be further explored.
Today, there are trends towards power uprates, longer fuel cycles and increasing burn-up putting additional requirements on the nuclear fuel. These requirements are met by the development of new fuel types, such as UO2 fuels containing dopants or additives. The additives and dopants affect fuel properties such as grain size and fission gas release. In the present study we have performed experimental leaching studies using two high burnup fuels with and without additives/dopants and compared the fuel types with respect to their instant release behavior. The results of the leaching of the samples for the 3 initial contact periods; 1, 7 and 23 days are reported here.
The impact of excess dietary leucine (Leu) was studied in two growth assays with pigs (8–25 kg). In each trial, forty-eight pigs were allotted to one of six dietary groups. The dietary Leu supply increased from treatment L100 to L200 (three increments). To guarantee that interactions between the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were not cushioned either surpluses of isoleucine (Ile, expt 1) or valine (Val; expt 2) were avoided. In the fifth treatment, the effects of a simultaneous excess of Leu and Val (expt 1), or of Leu and Ile (expt 2) were investigated. The sixth treatment was a positive control. An increase in dietary Leu decreased growth performance, and increased plasma Leu and serum α-keto-isocaproate levels in a linear, dose-dependent manner. Levels of plasma Ile and Val, and of serum α-keto-β-methylvalerate and α-keto-isovalerate, indicated increased catabolism. Linear increases in the activity of basal branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in the liver confirmed these findings. No major alterations occurred in the mRNA of branched-chain amino acid catabolism genes. In liver tissue from expt 2, however, the mRNA levels of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor acid labile subunit and insulin-like growth factor 1 decreased significantly with increasing dietary Leu. In conclusion, excess dietary Leu increased the catabolism of BCAA mainly through posttranscriptional mechanisms. The impact of excess Leu on the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor-1 axis requires further investigation.
With Learning by Expanding (Engeström, 1987), the development of cultural-historical activity theory entered a new phase. The book articulated a variety of structural aspects that researchers using cultural-historical activity theory might look for when attempting to analyze concrete human praxis. These aspects are captured emblematically by a triangular representation that has been a main scaffold for many scholars in their effort to understand a theory quite alien, in its dialectical foundations, to that of Western theorizing. Yet some elements of it have not yet come to be appreciated. Thus, to understand practical activity and the participative thinking that accompanies it requires understanding “the regulating effect of emotion” (Leont'ev, 1978, p. 27), because the “objectivity of activity is responsible not only for the objective character of images but also for the objectivity of needs, emotions, and feelings” (p. 54).
Many scholars have focused only on the structural aspects of activity, its systemic dimensions (Roth & Lee, 2007). These scholars have not taken into account the agentive dimensions of activity, including identity, emotion, ethics, and morality, or derivative concepts, such as motivation, identification, responsibility, and solidarity – all of which are integral to concrete praxis and its singular nature. These “sensuous” aspects of activity come into focus only if the whole activity – not only its structural but also its agentive dimensions – is analyzed.