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What is a photisterion? Translators usually render the Greek word phōtistērion (site of illumination) as ‘baptistery’ (site of immersion in water). This article reopens the study of phōtistēria, arguing that being ‘immersed’ or ‘illuminated’ evokes different senses of the concomitant meaning of the sites and rites of initiation. It situates late ancient phōtistēria from epigraphic and literary sources in their theological and liturgical contexts. The evidence from Galilee, Syria, Jordan and Cyprus corroborates the idea that many Christians of late antiquity preferred ‘illumination’ to express the composite rite of initiation in a phōtistērion, within which ‘baptism’ was one part.
In spite of the recognized physical and psychosocial effects of caring for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), caregiver burden (CB) in this setting is poorly understood. The objective of this research was to identify factors that were associated with CB in an Australian population of PD caregivers using a novel instrument – the Parkinson's Disease Caregiver Burden (PDCB) questionnaire.
Fifty patient–caregiver couples were recruited from three movement disorders clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Burden on caregivers was rated using the PDCB questionnaire. Burden scores were correlated with patient factors, including motor symptom severity (Unified Parkinson's Disease Ratings Scale and Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale), patient cognition (Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool; NUCOG), presence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors (Questionnaire for Impulsive–Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease), and patient olfaction. Caregiver and patient demographics, as well as results for depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS), were also examined for their relationship with CB.
H&Y stage, depression or anxiety in either caregiver or patient, and decreased patient NUCOG score were significantly associated with higher PDCB score. Multiple linear regression analysis identified caregiver and patient depression score and patient score for the visuoconstructional subscale of NUCOG to predict burden score. In addition, disease duration, duration of caregiving, and increased hours per day spent in giving care were significantly associated with increased burden.
We found psychiatric and cognitive factors to be the most relevant factors in the perception of burden in PD caregivers. On top of this, we found deficits in the domain of visuoconstruction predicted burden – a relationship not yet described in literature. Targeting depression and anxiety in this setting as well as identifying caregivers at high risk of burden may give clinicians the chance to optimize care of patients with PD through the caregiver.
Background: Existing instruments for caregiver burden assessment are not specific or sensitive to various aspects of caring for patients with Parkinson's disease. A better understanding of burden may enhance patient care and improve health of both patient and caregiver. The goal of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Parkinson's Disease Caregiver Burden (PDCB) questionnaire, a novel instrument designed to appraise more accurately the burden experienced by caregivers in the setting of Parkinson's disease.
Methods: Common sources of distress for caregivers were taken from discussions with Parkinson's disease patients, caregivers, and clinicians, and used as the foundation of the PDCB questionnaire items. Fifty patients and their respective caregivers were recruited from three specialist movement disorder clinics. Caregiver burden in the sample was gauged with the PDCB scale and the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI). Item sensitivity and questionnaire validity were assessed.
Results: In this pilot analysis, the PDCB questionnaire was found to be feasible and reliable. Strong correlations were found between the PDCB questionnaire and the CBI. The PDCB questionnaire contained more relevant items for this population compared with the CBI.
Conclusion: Strong initial feasibility, reliability, validity, and sensitivity for the PDCB questionnaire were demonstrated. With further evaluation and development, the PDCB questionnaire may prove to be a valuable supplementary tool to the existing CBI or a standalone instrument for use in the setting of Parkinson's disease.
This essay argues that the common understanding of imperial divine sonship among biblical scholars can be reframed by emphasizing the importance of adoption in Roman society and imperial ideology. A case study from the Gospel of Mark—the portrayal of Jesus' baptism—demonstrates some of the pay-off for reading the NT with a newly contextualized perspective on divine sonship. Through engagement with diverse sources from the Hellenistic and Roman eras, the dove will be interpreted as an omen and counter-symbol to the Roman eagle, which was a public portent of divine favor, election, and ascension to power.
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