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To examine the potential links between activity spaces, the food retail environment and food shopping behaviours for the population of young, urban adults.
Participants took part in the Canada Food Study, which collected information on demographics, food behaviour, diet and health, as well as an additional smartphone study that included a seven-day period of logging GPS (global positioning system) location and food purchases. Using a time-weighted, continuous representation of participant activity spaces generated from GPS trajectory data, the locations of food purchases and a geocoded food retail data set, negative binomial regression models were used to explore what types of food retailers participants were exposed to and where food purchases were made.
Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton and Halifax, Canada.
Young adults aged 16–30 years (n 496). These participants were a subset of the larger Canada Food Study.
Demographics, household food shopper status and city of residence were significantly associated with different levels of exposure to various types of food retailers. Food shopping behaviours were also statistically significantly associated with demographics, the activity space-based food environment, self-reported health and city of residence.
The study confirms that food behaviours are related to activity space-based food environment measures, which provide a more comprehensive accounting of food retail exposure than home-based measures. In addition, exposure to food retail and food purchasing behaviours of an understudied population are described.
This article outlines a new method for surveys to study elections and voter attitudes. Pre-election surveys often suffer from an inability to identify and survey the likely electorate for the upcoming election. We propose a new and inexpensive method to conduct representative surveys of the electorate. We demonstrate the performance of our method in producing a representative sample of the future electorate that can be used to study campaign dynamics and many other issues. We compare pre-election outcome forecasts to election outcomes in seven primary and general election surveys conducted prior to the 2008 and 2010 primary and general elections in three states. The results indicate that the methodology produces representative samples, including in low-turnout elections such as primaries where traditional methods have difficulty consistently sampling the electorate. This new methodology combines Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling, mailed invitation letters, and online administration of the questionnaire. The PPS sample is drawn based on a model employing variables from the publicly available voter file to produce a probability of voting score for each individual voter. The proposed method provides researchers a valuable tool to study the attitudes of the voting public.
This report uses 6-year outcomes of the Oregon Divorce Study to examine the processes by which parenting practices affect deviant peer association during two developmental stages: early to middle childhood and late childhood to early adolescence. The participants were 238 newly divorced mothers and their 5- to 8-year-old sons who were randomly assigned to Parent Management Training—Oregon Model (PMTO®) or to a no-treatment control group. Parenting practices, child delinquent behavior, and deviant peer association were repeatedly assessed from baseline to 6 years after baseline using multiple methods and informants. PMTO had a beneficial effect on parenting practices relative to the control group. Two stage models linking changes in parenting generated by PMTO to children's growth in deviant peer association were supported. During the early to middle childhood stage, the relationship of improved parenting practices on deviant peer association was moderated by family socioeconomic status (SES); effective parenting was particularly important in mitigating deviant peer association for lower SES families whose children experience higher densities of deviant peers in schools and neighborhoods. During late childhood and early adolescence, the relationship of improved parenting to youths' growth in deviant peer association was mediated by reductions in the growth of delinquency during childhood; higher levels of early delinquency are likely to promote deviant peer association through processes of selective affiliation and reciprocal deviancy training. The results are discussed in terms of multilevel developmental progressions of diminished parenting, child involvement in deviancy producing processes in peer groups, and increased variety and severity of antisocial behavior, all exacerbated by ecological risks associated with low family SES.
National hospital performance measures for C. difficile infection (CD) are available; comparing antibacterial use among performance levels can aid in identifying effective antimicrobial stewardship strategies to reduce CDI rates.
Hospital-level, cross-sectional analysis.
Hospital characteristics (ie, demographics, medications, patient mix) were obtained for 77 hospitals for 2013. Hospitals were assigned 1 of 3 levels of a CDI standardized infection ratio (SIR): ‘Worse than,’ ‘Better than,’ or ‘No different than’ a national benchmark. Analyses compared medication use (total and broad-spectrum antibacterials) for 3 metrics: days of therapy per 1,000 patient days; length of therapy; and proportion of patients receiving a medication across SIR levels. A multivariate, ordered-probit regression identified characteristics associated with SIR categories.
Regarding total average antimicrobial use per patient, there was a significant difference detected in mean length of therapy: ‘No different’ hospitals having the longest (4.93 days) versus ‘Worse’ (4.78 days) and ‘Better’ (4.43 days) (P<.01). ‘Better’ hospitals used fewer total antibacterials (693 days of therapy per 1,000 patient days) versus ‘No different’ (776 days) versus ‘Worse’ (777 days) (P<.05). The ‘Better’ hospitals used broad-spectrum antibacterials for a shorter average length of therapy (4.03 days) versus ‘No different’ (4.51 days) versus ‘Worse’ (4.38 days) (P<.05). ‘Better’ hospitals used fewer broad-spectrum antibacterials (310 days of therapy per 1,000 patient days) versus ‘No different’ (364 days) versus ‘Worse’ (349 days) (P<.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the proportion of elderly patients and chemotherapy days of therapy per 1,000 patient days was significantly negatively associated with the SIR.
These findings have potential implications regarding the need to fully account for hospital patient mix when carrying out inter-hospital comparisons of CDI rates.
The performance of a hospital- and community-onset Clostridium difficile infection definition using administrative data with a present-on-admission indicator was compared with definitions using clinical surveillance. For hospital-onset C. difficile infection, there was moderate sensitivity (68%) and high specificity (93%); for community-onset, sensitivity and specificity were high (both 85%).
Amaranthus control in cotton can be difficult with the loss of glyphosate efficacy, especially in conservation-tillage cropping systems. Research was conduction from 2006 to 2008 at EV Smith Research Center, Shorter, AL, to determine the level of glyphosate-susceptible Amaranthus control provided by four initial tillage and herbicide treatments, including 1) moldboard plowing followed by a single-pass disking and field cultivation plus pendimethalin at 1.2 kg ai ha−1 preplant incorporation (PPI), 2) two-pass disking followed by field cultivation plus pendimethalin at 1.2 kg ha−1 PPI, 3) no tillage including an application of pendimethalin at 1.2 kg ha−1 PRE, or 4) no tillage without pendimethalin in 2006. No further tillage practices or pendimethalin applications were utilized after study initiation. Initial tillage operations, including inversion with disking or disking twice, resulted in Amaranthus density of ≤ 4 plants m−2 and 47 to 82% control, whereas no-tillage treatments had ≥ 4 plants m−2 and 14 to 62% control. Subsequent applications of PRE herbicides included fluometuron at 1.68 kg ai ha−1 or prometryn at 1.12 kg ai ha−1 and provided 53 to 98% and 55 to 93% control, respectively, and reduced Amaranthus density compared to no PRE herbicide to < 2 plants m−2, regardless of tillage treatment. A POST application of glyphosate at 1.0 kg ae ha−1 improved control in conjunction with almost all treatments in each year. Results indicate that a one-time tillage operation followed by a return to reduced tillage may aid in the reduction of Amaranthus density when used with PRE-applied herbicides; however, this system will likely not provide adequate control when high population densities of glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus are present, thus highlighting the need for a highly efficacious POST herbicide system.
The ‘krill surplus’ hypothesis in Antarctica posits that the historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18–20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the Southern Ocean that benefited penguins. A previous study which examined stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) provides support for this hypothesis. Specifically, a significant decrease in δ13C and δ15N values occurred in modern versus ancient tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at three locations in the Antarctic Peninsula. We found an overall, but weak, decrease in modern versus fossil δ15N and δ13C values of gentoo penguin egg membrane with considerable variation across three breeding sites. Dietary mixing models suggest that shifts between fish and krill in gentoo penguins were likely not as strong as those previously observed in Adélie penguins. This weaker signal probably results from the greater reliance on fish in their diets, past and present, though we cannot rule out declines in primary productivity or other ecosystem shifts which also could account for declines in δ13C and δ15N values.
Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12·5–17·5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ≥ 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (β = 0·027, r 0·130, P< 0·001). Adolescents with insufficient (62·05 (sd 14·18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64·25 (sd 12·87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64·57 (sd 12·39)) (P< 0·001; P= 0·018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.