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Party competition is foundational to the study of modern politics, affecting outcomes as varied as policy choices, political participation, and the quality of representation. Scholars have long argued that increased levels of party competition are associated with more liberal policy making. By this logic, parties in close competition with one another try to expand their bases of support by catering to the desires of those who tend to abstain from the political process—the “have-nots.” We extend this classic hypothesis by examining the relationship between competition and policy liberalism over several decades, articulating and testing a theory that suggests that party competition relates differently to social and economic policy liberalism. We find robust evidence that increased competition has a positive relationship with economic policy liberalism, weaker evidence for a negative relationship between competition and social policy liberalism, and suggestive evidence that the direction and magnitudes of these relationships have changed over time.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) symptoms are typically assessed via questionnaires in research, yet questionnaires may be more prone to biases than direct clinical interviews. We compared mTBI symptoms reported on two widely used self-report inventories and the novel Structured Interview of TBI Symptoms (SITS). Second, we explored the association between acquiescence response bias and symptom reporting across modes of assessment.
Level 1 trauma center patients with mTBI (N = 73) were recruited within 2 weeks of injury, assessed at 3 months post-TBI, and produced nonacquiescent profiles. Assessments collected included the SITS (comprising open-ended and closed-ended questions), Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 (SCAT-3) symptom checklist, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scale.
Current mTBI symptom burden and individual symptom endorsement were highly concordant between SITS closed-ended questions, the RPQ, and the SCAT-3. Within the SITS, participants reported significantly fewer mTBI symptoms to open-ended as compared to later closed-ended questions, and this difference was weakly correlated with TRIN-r. Symptom scales were weakly associated with TRIN-r.
mTBI symptom reporting varies primarily by whether questioning is open- vs. closed-ended but not by mode of assessment (interview, questionnaire). Acquiescence response bias appears to play a measurable but small role in mTBI symptom reporting overall and the degree to which participants report more symptoms to closed- than open-ended questioning. These findings have important implications for mTBI research and support the validity of widely used TBI symptom inventories.
Despite consensus that personality influences mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recovery, it has been underexamined. We evaluated the extent to which diverse personality and psychiatric symptom dimensions predict mTBI recovery.
This prospective cohort study involved psychological assessments of hospital patients with mTBI (n = 75; median = 2 days post-injury, range = 0–12 days) and orthopedic trauma controls (OTC; n = 79) who were used for comparison in mediation modeling. Chronic symptoms were evaluated at 3 months after mTBI (n = 50) using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) symptom checklist. Linear regression analyses were used to identify the predominant predictors of chronic symptoms in mTBI. Modern mediation analyses tested the hypothesis that personality traits predict chronic symptoms through acute psychological response to injury.
In mTBI, trait psychoticism directly predicted chronic mTBI symptoms and was the strongest personality predictor overall. Furthermore, an internalizing personality dimension emphasizing negative affect/emotionality and detachment predicted chronic mTBI symptoms indirectly through enhancement of acute somatic complaints. In OTC, internalizing personality acted through the same mediator as in mTBI, whereas the effect of psychoticism was also mediated through acute somatic complaints. There was varying support for a moderated direct effect of personality traits at low levels of positive emotionality across models.
These causal models provide novel insights about the role of personality in mTBI symptom recovery, highlighting the complexity of how psychological processes may interact to affect recovery and revealing that some of these processes may be non-specific to brain injury.
Sense of place describes both affective and cognitive — emotional and intellectual — connections to place. Affective outcomes, tied to arts and humanities education, can facilitate these connections. But little research explores environmental science, arts and humanities (eSAH) curricula on place relationships. Additionally, most research on the sense of place focuses on repeated visits to a place over time, rather than short-term experiences like a field trip. Finally, digital technology is a growing trend across science education, but little research investigates its use in field-based contexts. Our research begins to address these gaps. This article describes an eSAH field trip for middle and high school learners. Using a conventional content analysis, we present pilot data from two high school field trips. Our findings illuminate a framework for understanding active and passive place relationships in the context of short-term interdisciplinary field learning experiences.
MRSA continues to spread in hospitals, despite modest recent success. Gaps exist regarding how hospital policies impact MRSA transmission in hospitals. Characterization of the policy environment has been useful in approaching other public health issues including control of alcohol, firearms, tobacco, and traffic safety. Objective: Our goal was to describe measurable and modifiable policy components designed to prevent MRSA in hospital settings. Methods: We examined 4 types of hospital policies from 5 metropolitan hospitals in Minnesota: hand hygiene, multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) and isolation, healthcare personnel influenza vaccination, and whistleblower (corporate compliance). We developed a tool to systematically evaluate policies for each topic that included 19–23 instructional and implementation elements guided by regulatory and clinical practice guidelines: purpose, expectations, education and training, monitoring, enforcement, corrective actions, responsibilities, and corrective actions. Each policy element was evaluated for its presence (yes or no) and thoroughness (nonexistent = 0, cursory = 1, thorough = 2). Results: All hospitals had hand hygiene and MDRO and isolation policies; 3 of 5 had influenza and whistleblower policies. The policies varied in comprehensiveness and thoroughness across hospitals and topics. Most policies included purpose and policy statements with a statement of organizational rules (14 of 16 and 16 of 16, respectively) with mean thoroughness scores of 1.04 and 1.20, respectively. Most policies lacked consequences for noncompliance (6 of 16), accountability (6 of 16), and monitoring and enforcement of policy expectations (5 of 16). When included, the policy components scored low for thoroughness, and 50% of policies (8 of 16; range, 20% for hand hygiene and 100% for influenza vaccination) specified expectations for educating staff about the policy topic, with a mean thoroughness score of 0.75. Responsibilities for policy expectations were lacking: responsibilities for product needs and availability (3 of 13), training and education (1 of 16); and monitoring compliance with skills and techniques (4 of 16). Of the 4 policy types, influenza vaccination was the most complete. All influenza policies had 50% of categories completed versus hand hygiene (26%), MDRO (17%), and whistleblower (26%). The hand hygiene policies scored highest for thoroughness; 48% of policy elements scored >1.0 versus MDRO (22%), influenza (25%), and whistleblower (11%). Conclusions: We developed a systematic method to quantitatively evaluate hospital policies. Our review of hospital policies most commonly contained thorough instructional elements such as organizational requirements and protocols and procedures. Policies often lacked implementation elements such as expectations for monitoring, enforcement, responsibilities, accountabilities, and staff training and education. As we begin to characterize policy, endogenous in nature, as a potential exposure, it is important that we develop rigorous measurement. We have provided a first step in developing such an approach.
To determine whether the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) severity criteria adequately predicts poor outcomes.
Retrospective validation study.
Setting and participants:
Patients with CDI in the Veterans’ Affairs Health System from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016.
For the 2010 criteria, patients with leukocytosis or a serum creatinine (SCr) value ≥1.5 times the baseline were classified as severe. For the 2018 criteria, patients with leukocytosis or a SCr value ≥1.5 mg/dL were classified as severe. Poor outcomes were defined as hospital or intensive care admission within 7 days of diagnosis, colectomy within 14 days, or 30-day all-cause mortality; they were modeled as a function of the 2010 and 2018 criteria separately using logistic regression.
We analyzed data from 86,112 episodes of CDI. Severity was unclassifiable in a large proportion of episodes diagnosed in subacute care (2010, 58.8%; 2018, 49.2%). Sensitivity ranged from 0.48 for subacute care using 2010 criteria to 0.73 for acute care using 2018 criteria. Areas under the curve were poor and similar (0.60 for subacute care and 0.57 for acute care) for both versions, but negative predictive values were >0.80.
Model performances across care settings and criteria versions were generally poor but had reasonably high negative predictive value. Many patients in the subacute-care setting, an increasing fraction of CDI cases, could not be classified. More work is needed to develop criteria to identify patients at risk of poor outcomes.
The present study investigated the effects of different types of recasts and prompts on the rate of repair and spontaneous use of novel vocabulary by eight children with severe motor speech disabilities who used speech-generating technologies to communicate. Data came from 60 transcripts of clinical sessions that were part of a conversation-based intervention designed to teach them pronouns, verbs, and verb inflections. The results showed that, when presented alone, interrogative choice and declarative recasts led to the highest rates of child repair. The results also showed that when children were presented with recasts and prompts to repair, the rate of repair increased. Spontaneous use of linguistic targets was significantly and positively related to conversational sequences where the adult recast was followed by child repair. These findings suggest that using different recast types and prompts to repair may be beneficial for spontaneous use of linguistic targets in this population.
Does the use of judicial review by unelected judges harm public support for their decisions? Scholars have often answered this question in the affirmative. We examine the extent to which the use of judicial review reduces the ability of judges to achieve acceptance of their decisions, arguing that decisions made by elected judges may be more palatable to the public. Our experimental evidence demonstrates that the public is less prone to accept both decisions made by appointed judges and judicial decisions that strike down laws. However, the public is no more likely to accept the use of judicial review by an appointed court than an elected court. The results have implications both for institutional design in the American states and the microfoundations of judicial independence.
Use latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of cognitive functioning in a sample of older adults with clinical depression and without dementia and assess demographic, psychiatric, and neurobiological predictors of class membership.
Neuropsychological assessment data from 121 participants in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-Depression project (ADNI-D) were analyzed, including measures of executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial and language functioning, and processing speed. These data were analyzed using LCA, with predictors of class membership such as depression severity, depression and treatment history, amyloid burden, and APOE e4 allele also assessed.
A two-class model of cognitive functioning best fit the data, with the Lower Cognitive Class (46.1% of the sample) performing approximately one standard deviation below the Higher Cognitive Class (53.9%) on most tests. When predictors of class membership were assessed, carrying an APOE e4 allele was significantly associated with membership in the Lower Cognitive Class. Demographic characteristics, age of depression onset, depression severity, history of psychopharmacological treatment for depression, and amyloid positivity did not predict class membership.
LCA allows for identification of subgroups of cognitive functioning in a mostly cognitively intact late life depression (LLD) population. One subgroup, the Lower Cognitive Class, more likely to carry an APOE e4 allele, may be at a greater risk for subsequent cognitive decline, even though current performance on neuropsychological testing is within normal limits. These findings have implications for early identification of those at greatest risk, risk factors, and avenues for preventive intervention.
Wildlife conservation in the Anthropocene means there is a pressing need to find ways for wildlife and humans to share landscapes. However, this is challenging due to the complex interactions that occur within social-ecological systems (SES). This challenge is exemplified by grey wolf management in the American West, where human governance systems influence where and at what densities carnivores persist, thereby regulating and limiting the impacts of carnivores on both human and ecological communities. Here, we build a SES conceptual framework to disentangle the interdependencies between wolves and humans, including the ecological impacts of wolves and people in anthropogenic landscapes and the socio-economic forces shaping human–wolf interactions now and in the future. A key lesson is that coexistence rests not only on the biophysical capacity of a landscape to be shared by humans and wolves, but also on the capacity for human societies to adjust to and accept some level of conflict with wolves. As such, a holistic view that recognizes humans, our social systems and institutions as key actors and attributes of ecological systems can advance the theory and practice of coexistence.
This chapter examines the types and prevalence of psychotic symptoms and disorders in older adults, and offers insight into distinguishing between the disorders and guidelines for treatment. Psychotic disorders are very common (lifetime prevalence 25%) with risk increasing with age. Prevalence rates have ranged from 1-13.4%. Psychotic disorders can be divided into “primary” (40%), due to the direct effect of a psychiatric disorder and “secondary” (60%), caused by a non-psychiatric condition. Dementia is the most common cause of psychoses. The mnemonic “6 Ds” can be used to remember the principal causes of psychotic disorders: Disease, Delirium, Drugs, Dementia, Depression and mania, and Delusions and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. There are no pathognomonic signs to differentiate psychosis caused by psychiatric illness from that caused by another condition, although there are some characteristics that may serve to distinguish them. There are few controlled treatment studies and most guidelines have been developed through expert consensus panels. It is recommended that psychosocial interventions should be tried initially and medication should be used only when the former has failed or when symptoms present a danger to the patient or caregiver.
To identify potential participants for clinical trials, electronic health records (EHRs) are searched at potential sites. As an alternative, we investigated using medical devices used for real-time diagnostic decisions for trial enrollment.
To project cohorts for a trial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), we used electrocardiograph-based algorithms that identify ACS or ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that prompt clinicians to offer patients trial enrollment. We searched six hospitals’ electrocardiograph systems for electrocardiograms (ECGs) meeting the planned trial’s enrollment criterion: ECGs with STEMI or > 75% probability of ACS by the acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument (ACI-TIPI). We revised the ACI-TIPI regression to require only data directly from the electrocardiograph, the e-ACI-TIPI using the same data used for the original ACI-TIPI (development set n = 3,453; test set n = 2,315). We also tested both on data from emergency department electrocardiographs from across the US (n = 8,556). We then used ACI-TIPI and e-ACI-TIPI to identify potential cohorts for the ACS trial and compared performance to cohorts from EHR data at the hospitals.
Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas on the test set were excellent, 0.89 for ACI-TIPI and 0.84 for the e-ACI-TIPI, as was calibration. On the national electrocardiographic database, ROC areas were 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, and with very good calibration. When tested for detection of patients with > 75% ACS probability, both electrocardiograph-based methods identified eligible patients well, and better than did EHRs.
Using data from medical devices such as electrocardiographs may provide accurate projections of available cohorts for clinical trials.
To assess the extent of error present in self-reported weight data in the Women’s Health Initiative, variables that may be associated with error, and to develop methods to reduce any identified error.
Prospective cohort study.
Forty clinical centres in the USA.
Women (n 75 336) participating in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) and women (n 6236) participating in the WHI Long Life Study (LLS) with self-reported and measured weight collected about 20 years later (2013–2014).
The correlation between self-reported and measured weights was 0·97. On average, women under-reported their weight by about 2 lb (0·91 kg). The discrepancies varied by age, race/ethnicity, education and BMI. Compared with normal-weight women, underweight women over-reported their weight by 3·86 lb (1·75 kg) and obese women under-reported their weight by 4·18 lb (1·90 kg) on average. The higher the degree of excess weight, the greater the under-reporting of weight. Adjusting self-reported weight for an individual’s age, race/ethnicity and education yielded an identical average weight to that measured.
Correlations between self-reported and measured weights in the WHI are high. Discrepancies varied by different sociodemographic characteristics, especially an individual’s BMI. Correction of self-reported weight for individual characteristics could improve the accuracy of assessment of obesity status in postmenopausal women.
Both elevated blood pressure and/or depression increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This study in treated elderly hypertensive patients explored the incidence of depression, its association (pre-existing and incident) with mortality and predictors of incident depression.
Data from 6,083 hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study were used. Participants were followed for a median of 10.8 years (including 4.1 years in-trial) and classified into: “no depression,” “pre-existing” and “incident” depression groups based on either being “diagnosed with depressive disorders” and/or “treated with an anti-depressant drug” at baseline or during in-trial period. Further, we redefined “depression” restricted to presence of both conditions for sensitivity analyses. For the current study, end-points were all-cause and any cardiovascular mortality.
313 (5%) participants had pre-existing depression and a further 916 (15%) participants developed depression during the trial period (incidence 4% per annum). Increased (hazard-ratio, 95% confidence-interval) all-cause mortality was observed among those with either pre-existing (1.23, 1.01–1.50; p = 0.03) or incident (1.26, 1.12–1.41; p < 0.001) depression compared to those without. For cardiovascular mortality, a 24% increased risk (1.24, 1.05–1.47; p = 0.01) was observed among those with incident depression. The sensitivity analyses, using the restricted depression definition showed similar associations. Incident depression was associated with being female, aged ≥75 years, being an active smoker at study entry, and developing new diabetes during the study period.
This elderly cohort had a high incidence of depression irrespective of their randomised antihypertensive regimen. Both pre-existing and incident depression were associated with increased mortality.
Objectives: Concussions cause diverse symptoms that are often measured through a single symptom severity score. Researchers have postulated distinct dimensions of concussion symptoms, raising the possibility that total scores may not accurately represent their multidimensional nature. This study examined to what degree concussion symptoms, assessed by the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3), reflect a unidimensional versus multidimensional construct to inform how the SCAT3 should be scored and advance efforts to identify distinct phenotypes of concussion. Methods: Data were aggregated across two prospective studies of sport-related concussion, yielding 219 high school and college athletes in the acute (<48 hr) post-injury period. Item-level ratings on the SCAT3 checklist were analyzed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. We specified higher-order and bifactor models and compared their fit, interpretability, and external correlates. Results: The best-fitting model was a five-factor bifactor model that included a general factor on which all items loaded and four specific factors reflecting emotional symptoms, torpor, sensory sensitivities, and headache symptoms. The bifactor model demonstrated better discriminant validity than the counterpart higher-order model, in which the factors were highly correlated (r=.55–.91). Conclusions: The SCAT3 contains items that appear unidimensional, suggesting that it is appropriate to quantify concussion symptoms with total scores. However, evidence of multidimensionality was revealed using bifactor modeling. Additional work is needed to clarify the nature of factors identified by this model, explicate their clinical and research utility, and determine to what degree the model applies to other stages of injury recovery and patient subgroups. (JINS, 2018, 24, 793–804)
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Objectives and goals of this study will be to: (1) compare fecal microbiota and fecal organic acids in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and controls and (2) investigate the association between colonic transit and fecal microbiota in IBS patients and controls. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We propose an investigation of fecal organic acids, colonic transit and fecal microbiota in 36 IBS patients and 18 healthy controls. The target population will be adults ages 18–65 years meeting Rome IV criteria for IBS (both diarrhea- and constipation-predominant, IBS-D and IBS-C) and asymptomatic controls. Exclusion criteria are: (a) history of microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, visceral cancer, chronic infectious disease, immunodeficiency, uncontrolled thyroid disease, liver disease, or elevated AST/ALT>2.0× the upper limit of normal, (b) prior radiation therapy of the abdomen or abdominal surgeries with the exception of appendectomy or cholecystectomy >6 months before study initiation, (c) ingestion of prescription, over the counter, or herbal medications affecting gastrointestinal transit or study interpretation within 6 months of study initiation for controls or within 2 days before study initiation for IBS patients, (d) pregnant females, (e) antibiotic usage within 3 months before study participation, (f) prebiotic or probiotic usage within the 2 weeks before study initiation, (g) tobacco users. Primary outcomes will be fecal bile acid excretion and profile, short-chain fatty acid excretion and profile, colonic transit, and fecal microbiota. Secondary outcomes will be stool characteristics based on responses to validated bowel diaries. Stool samples will be collected from participants during the last 2 days of a 4-day 100 g fat diet and split into 3 samples for fecal microbiota, SCFA, and bile acid analysis and frozen. Frozen aliquots will be shipped to the Metabolite Profiling Facility at Purdue University and the Mayo Clinic Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology for SCFA and bile acid measurements, respectively. Analysis of fecal microbiota will be performed in the research laboratory of Dr David Nelson in collaboration with bioinformatics expertise affiliated with the Nelson lab. Colonic transit time will be measured with the previously validated method using radio-opaque markers. Generalized linear models will be used as the analysis framework for comparing study endpoints among groups. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This study seeks to examine the innovative concept that specific microbial signatures are associated with increased fecal excretion of organic acids to provide unique insights on a potential mechanistic link between altered intraluminal organic acids and fecal microbiota. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results may lead to development of targets for novel therapies and diagnostic biomarkers for IBS, emphasizing the role of the fecal metabolome.
Prior research has documented shared heritable contributions to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) as well as NSSI and suicide attempt (SA). In addition, trauma exposure has been implicated in risk for NSSI and suicide. Genetically informative studies are needed to determine common sources of liability to all three self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, and to clarify the nature of their associations with traumatic experiences.
Multivariate biometric modeling was conducted using data from 9526 twins [59% female, mean age = 31.7 years (range 24–42)] from two cohorts of the Australian Twin Registry, some of whom also participated in the Childhood Trauma Study and the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Project.
The prevalences of high-risk trauma exposure (HRT), NSSI, SI, and SA were 24.4, 5.6, 27.1, and 4.6%, respectively. All phenotypes were moderately to highly correlated. Genetic influences on self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and HRT were significant and highly correlated among men [rG = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.37–0.81)] and women [rG = 0.56 (0.49–0.63)]. Unique environmental influences were modestly correlated in women [rE = 0.23 (0.01–0.45)], suggesting that high-risk trauma may confer some direct risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among females.
Individuals engaging in NSSI are at increased risk for suicide, and common heritable factors contribute to these associations. Preventing trauma exposure may help to mitigate risk for self-harm and suicide, either directly or indirectly via reductions in liability to psychopathology more broadly. In addition, targeting pre-existing vulnerability factors could significantly reduce risk for life-threatening behaviors among those who have experienced trauma.