To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Most tobacco treatment efforts target healthcare settings, because about 75% of smokers in the United States visit a primary care provider annually. Yet, 25% of patients may be missed by such targeting.
To describe patients who smoke but infrequently visit primary care – their characteristics, rates of successful telephone contact, and acceptance of tobacco treatment.
Tobacco Cessation Outreach Specialists ‘cold-called’ those without a primary care visit in the past year, offering tobacco dependence treatment. Age, sex, insurance status, race, ethnicity, electronic health record (EHR) patient-portal status and outreach outcomes were reported.
Of 3,407 patients identified as smokers in a health system registry, 565 (16.6%) had not seen any primary care provider in the past year. Among 271 of those called, 143 (53%) were successfully reached and 33 (23%) set a quit date. Those without visits tended to be younger, male, some-day versus every-day smokers (42 vs. 44 years, P = 0.004; 48% vs. 40% female, P = 0.0002, and 21% vs. 27% some-day, P = 0.003), and less active on the EHR patient portal (33% vs. 40%, P = 0.001).
A substantial proportion of patients who smoke are missed by traditional tobacco treatment interventions that require a primary care visit, yet many are receptive to quit smoking treatment offers.
Business English and academic English may perhaps be thought of as areas of language use requiring precision of expression and a quest for specific and unambiguous meaning. However, corpus evidence shows that both types of language, in their spoken contexts, exhibit noticeable use of the kinds of vague expressions found in everyday conversation. In this lecture, I focus on one type of vagueness: vague category marking (VGM). This feature involves mention of an example or examples of something followed by reference to a broad, ad hoc category of which the chosen examples are seen as typical. References to categories commonly involve expressions such as or whatever, and so on, or something (like that). In both business and academic English, vague category marking is an important projection of shared knowledge and shared identities. In business, vagueness is also a useful tool in delicate negotiations. In academic English, vague categories refer to bodies of assumed shared knowledge and are crucial in the pedagogic process of grafting new knowledge onto old. Subtle differences are drawn out by different types of vague category markers. I conclude with some implications for teaching in these specialised areas.
Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are major sources of gas and dust in the interstellar medium. During the brief (∼1000 yr) period in the evolution from AGB to the Planetary Nebula (PN) stage, the molecular composition evolves from mainly diatomic and small polyatomic species to more complex molecules. Using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), we have carried out a spectral line survey of CRL 618, covering a frequency range of 281.9 to 359.4 GHz. More than 1000 lines were detected in the ∼60 GHz range, most of them assigned to HC3N and c-C3H2, and their isotopologues. About 200 lines are unassigned. Lines of CO, HCO+, and CS show the fast outflow wings, while the majority of line emission arises from a compact region of ∼1” diameter. We have analyzed the lines of HC3N, c-C3H2, CH3CN, and their isotopologues with rotation temperature diagrams.
There is limited empirical information on service-level outcome domains and indicators for the large number of people with intellectual disabilities being treated in forensic psychiatric hospitals.
This study identified and developed the domains that should be used to measure treatment outcomes for this population.
A systematic review of the literature highlighted 60 studies which met eligibility criteria; they were synthesised using content analysis. The findings were refined within a consultation and consensus exercises with carers, patients and experts.
The final framework encompassed three a priori superordinate domains: (a) effectiveness, (b) patient safety and (c) patient and carer experience. Within each of these, further sub-domains emerged from our systematic review and consultation exercises. These included severity of clinical symptoms, offending behaviours, reactive and restrictive interventions, quality of life and patient satisfaction.
To index recovery, services need to measure treatment outcomes using this framework.
We describe methods for measuring crystal orientation fabric with sonic waves in an ice core borehole, with special attention paid to vertical-girdle fabrics that are prevalent at the WAIS Divide. The speed of vertically propagating compressional waves in ice is influenced by vertical clustering of the ice crystal c-axes. Shear-wave speeds – particularly the speed separation between fast and slow shear polarizations – are sensitive to azimuthal anisotropy. Sonic data from the WAIS Divide complement thin-section measurements of fabric. Thin sections show a steady transition to strong girdle fabrics in the upper 2000 m of ice, followed by a transition to vertical-pole fabrics below 2500 m depth. Compressional-wave sonic data are inconclusive in the upper ice, due to noise, as well as the method's inherent insensitivity to girdle fabrics. Compared with available thin sections, sonic data provide better resolution of the transition to pole fabrics below 2500 m, notably including an abrupt increase in vertical clustering near 3000 m. Our compressional-wave measurements resolve fabric changes occurring over depth ranges of a few meters that cannot be inferred from available thin sections, but are sensitive only to zenithal anisotropy. Future logging tools should be designed to measure shear waves in addition to compressional waves, especially for logging in regions where ice flow patterns favor the development of girdle fabrics.
Supraglacial debris thickness is a key control on the surface energy balance of debris-covered glaciers, yet debris thickness measurements are sparse due to difficulties of data collection. Here we use ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to measure debris thickness on the ablation zone of Lirung Glacier, Nepal. We observe a strong, continuous reflection, which we interpret as the ice surface, through debris layers of 0.1 to at least 2.3 m thick, provided that appropriate acquisition parameters were used while surveying. GPR measurements of debris thickness correlate well with pit measurements of debris thickness (r = 0.91, RMSE = 0.04 m) and two-way travel times are consistent at tie points (r = 0.97). 33% of measurements are <0.5 m, so sub-debris melting is likely important in terms of mass loss on the debris-covered tongue and debris thickness is highly variable over small spatial scales (of order 10 m), likely due to local slope processes. GPR can be used to make debris thickness measurements more quickly, over a wider debris thickness range, and at higher spatial resolution than any other means and is therefore a valuable tool with which to map debris thickness distribution on Himalayan glaciers.
Organisational restructuring is a pervasive strategy employed by organisations in Australia in response to changes in market competition and/or policy directives. Such restructuring often involves staff redundancies and increased demands on the remaining employees. This paper identifies important issues for workplace rehabilitation programs in response to this phenomenon of organisational restructuring. The paper notes the impact of organisational restructuring on clients in workplace rehabilitation programs and the types of issues rehabilitation professionals are likely to face at this time. A particular focus is the aspect of managerial behaviour during the process of change and the paper reports from a range of studies on employee well-being, managerial bullying and coercion in the context of organisational restructuring. Considerations for the rehabilitation professional include the need to understand communication issues, identify those at risk, and maintain the natural supports during the change program. Suggestions are given for convenors of workplace rehabilitation programs to actively collaborate with the human resource function of the organisation and disability management is outlined as a useful example of such strategies.
The Galway Granite Complex is unique among the British and Irish Caledonian granitoid terranes, as it records punctuated phases of magmatism from ∼425–380 Ma throughout the latest phase of the Caledonian Orogeny. Remapping of the Omey Pluton, the oldest member of this suite, has constrained the spatial distribution and contact relationships of the pluton's three main facies relative to the nature of the host rock structure. The external contacts of the pluton are mostly concordant to the limbs and hinge of the Connemara Antiform. New AMS data show that a subtle concentric outward dipping foliation is present, and this is interpreted to reflect pluton inflation during continued magma ingress. Combined field, petrographic and AMS data show that two sets of shear zones (NNW–SSE and ENE–WSW) cross-cut the concentric foliation, and that these structures were active during the construction of the pluton. We show that regional sinistral transpression at ∼420 Ma would have caused dilation along the intersection of these two fault sets, and suggest that this facilitated centralised magma ascent. Lateral emplacement was controlled by the symmetry of the Connemara Antiform to ultimately produce a discordant phacolith. We propose that regional sinistral transpression at ∼420 Ma influenced the siting of smaller intrusions over NNW–SSE faults, and that the later onset of regional transtension caused larger volumes of magma to intrude along the E–W Skird Rocks Fault at ∼400 Ma.
This lecture considers what reference and pedagogical grammars and grammar teaching materials for L2 learners should ideally include, based on corpus evidence from both native-speaker and learner corpora. I demonstrate how learner corpora can be used to track the emergence of grammatical features, from the elementary level to advanced, how learners get to grips with new grammar and what we can learn from the statistical output of error-coded corpora. Additionally, we look at how the divide between lexis and grammar becomes progressively blurred and how corpus information can best be used to produce useful grammars and teaching materials for students at different levels. The advanced level in particular is focused on. The lecture is presented within the framework of the English Profile Project (EPP), a large, international, inter-disciplinary project which uses corpora to investigate learner competence at different levels of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR).
In this chapter, we address the biophysical impacts of climate change, and the consequent impacts on socio-economic systems. Modelling the impacts associated with future climate change provides important information for society’s mitigation and adaptation responses. It also presents significant challenges for Earth system science. We discuss the ways in which uncertainty in impact modelling arises and how it can be managed.
Changes in climate, including those arising as a consequence of anthropogenic perturbations of the climate system, can result in a wide variety of impacts on Earth’s ecosystems and the human activities that depend on them. There are two good practical reasons why it is important to understand the processes involved and assess the possible magnitudes of impacts.
First, an assessment of the extent to which continued anthropogenic climate change could inflict damage is needed in order that well-informed decisions can be made about the reduction of human influences on climate. Our understanding of Earth system behaviour alerts us to the fact that action to mitigate climate change through reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions is not without consequences; so decisions to pursue mitigation options need to be weighed up on the basis of reliable estimates of the costs, risks and benefits of different courses of action.
Secondly, the increase in atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations since the Industrial Revolution means that further climate change is inevitable even if greenhouse-gas emissions were to be reduced soon ( Figure 6.1 ). It is therefore necessary for society to adapt to unavoidable changes. Since adaptation action is also not without consequences, it is important that adaptive action addresses credible risks , and represents an efficient allocation of resources.
The goal of the division is to address the scientific issues that were developed at the 2009 IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro. These are:
—Gaussian gravitational constant, Astronomical Unit, GMSun, geodesic precession-nutation
•Solar System Ephemerides
—Comparison of dynamical reference frames
•Future Optical Reference Frame
•Future Radio Reference Frame
•Predictions of Earth orientation
•Units of measurements for astronomical quantities in relativistic context
•Astronomical units in the relativistic framework
•Time-dependent ecliptic in the GCRS
•Review of space missions
•Detection of gravitational waves
•VLBI on the Moon
•Real time electronic access to UT1-UTC
In pursuit of these goals Division I members have made significant scientific and organizational progress, and are organizing a Joint Discussion on Space-Time Reference Systems for Future Research at the 2012 IAU General Assembly. The details of Division activities and references are provided in the individual Commission and Working Group reports in this volume. A comprehensive list of references related to the work of the Division is available at the IAU Division I website at http://maia.usno.navy.mil/iaudiv1/.
The Cross-border Merger Directive has been implemented in Ireland by Statutory Instrument No. 157 of 2008, European Communities (Cross-border Mergers) Regulations 2008 (the Regulations). The Regulations were given effect on27 May 2008.
Subject to the exemptions listed below, the Regulations facilitate the cross-border merger of any ‘Irish company’, with a limited liability company or companies in other European Economic Area Member States. An ‘Irish company’ is defined as a limited liability company (other than a company limited by guarantee). An ‘Irish company’ also includes unregistered companies to which Section 377(1) of the Irish Companies Act 1963 applies. However, in practice there is only one such Irish entity, the Governor and Company of the Bank of Ireland. Unlimited liability companies cannot avail of the cross-border merger procedure under the Regulations.
Welcome to the first issue of the English Profile Journal. The journal has been launched by Cambridge University Press to mark a significant stage in the development of the English Profile Programme. In February 2009, representatives of the institutions, groups and individuals involved in English Profile gathered together for a two-day seminar in Cambridge. The attendees shared the provisional results of their ongoing research into various aspects of the project and discussed ways forward for the network of collaborators and partners that English Profile has grown into. Members of the seminar presented their work, which was critiqued by the assembled participants. Over the months that followed, the presenters refined and documented their research presentations, and it is a selection of those papers which we now publish in this first issue, which will be incrementally published hereafter, and free until at least the end of 2012. Our aim is to showcase a representative cross-section of the kinds of research being carried out under the auspices of English Profile.
An important priority for the English Profile programme is to incorporate empirical evidence of the spoken language into the Common European Framework (CEFR). At present, the CEFR descriptors relating to the spoken language include references to fluency and its development as the learner moves from one level to another. This article offers a critique of the monologic bias of much of our current approach to spoken fluency. Fluency undoubtedly involves a degree of automaticity and the ability quickly to retrieve ready-made chunks of language. However, fluency also involves the ability to create flow and smoothness across turn-boundaries and can be seen as an interactive phenomenon in discourse. The article offers corpus evidence for the notion of confluence, that is the joint production of flow by more than one speaker, focusing in particular on turn-openings and closings. It considers the implications of an interactive view of fluency for pedagogy, assessment and in the broader social context.