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Drops subjected to electric fields can deform into singular shapes exhibiting apparent sharp tips. At high field strengths, a perfectly conducting drop surrounded by a perfectly insulating exterior fluid deforms into a prolate-shaped drop with conical ends and can exist in hydrostatic equilibrium. On the conical ends, capillary stress, which is due to the out-of-plane curvature and is singular, balances electric normal stress which is also singular. If the two phases are not perfect conductors/insulators but are both leaky dielectrics and the drop is much more conducting and viscous than the exterior, electric tangential stress disrupts the hydrostatic force balance and leads to jet emission from the cone's apex. If, however, the physical situation is inverted so that a weakly conducting, slightly viscous drop is immersed in a highly conducting, more viscous exterior, the drop deforms into an oblate lens-like profile before eventually becoming unstable. In experiments, the equator of a lenticular drop superficially resembles a wedge prior to instability. Such a drop disintegrates by equatorial streaming by ejecting a thin liquid sheet from its equator. We show theoretically by performing a local analysis that a lenticular drop's equatorial profile can be a wedge only if an approximate form of the surface charge transport equation – continuity of normal current condition – is used. Moreover, we demonstrate via numerical simulation that such wedge-shaped drops do not become unstable and therefore cannot emit equatorial sheets. We then show by transient simulations how equatorial streaming can occur when charge transport along the interface is analysed without approximation.
When a poorly conducting drop that is surrounded by a more conducting exterior fluid is subjected to an electric field, the drop can deform into an oblate shape at low field strengths. Such drops become unstable at high field strengths and display two types of dynamics, dimpling and equatorial streaming, the physics of which is currently not understood. If the drop is more viscous, dimples form and grow at the poles of the drop and eventually the discocyte-shaped drop breaks up to form a torus. If the exterior fluid is more viscous, the drop deforms into a lens and sheds rings from the equator that subsequently break into a number of smaller droplets. A theoretical explanation as to why dimple- and lens-shaped drops occur, and the mechanisms for the onset of these instabilities, are provided by determining steady-state solutions by simulation and inferring their stability from bifurcation analysis. For large drop viscosities, electric shear stress is shown to play a dominant role and to result in dimpling. For small drop viscosities, equatorial normal stresses (electric, hydrodynamic and capillary) become unbounded and lead to the lens shape.
Charles Macklin, the celebrated eighteenth-century actor and playwright, is now
remembered as a comedian and a comedic writer; however, his first produced work
as an author was the historical drama Henry VII, or the Popish
Imposter. This was immediately condemned as a flop and, although it was
published, it was never again produced. In this article Michael M. Wagoner
examines the nature of the play’s failure by questioning the accepted
narratives of theatrical success. Specifically, he engages issues of audience
reception as well as the playwright’s persona to understand the
combined relationship between the two dynamics that can result in a
play’s failure. Ultimately, both Macklin’s persona and his
later work secured the flop narrative in order to temper the subsequent
expectations of his audiences. Michael M. Wagoner is a doctoral candidate at
Florida State University, and he holds an MFA in Shakespeare and Performance from
Mary Baldwin College. His research examines the performance and dramaturgy of
early modern drama, and his essay ‘Imaginative Bodies and Bodies
Imagined: Extreme Casting in Shakespeare’s The
Tempest and Fletcher and Massinger’s The Sea
Voyage’ will appear in The Bear Stage: Shaping
Shakespeare for Performance (Farleigh Dickinson University Press,
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