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The SrFeO3/SiO2/Si thin film system has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thin films of SrFeO3 were grown by pulsed laser deposition onto silicon substrates with a SiO2 buffer layer at room temperature (RT) and 700 °C and subjected to annealing for various periods of time at temperature T = 700 °C. Transmission electron microscopy characterization showed that the microstructure of the film deposited at room temperature contained crystalline and amorphous layers. Silicon diffusion into SrFeO3 films occurred at the SiO2 interface for the samples deposited at 700 °C and for those films annealed at 700 °C. The silicon diffusion-induced interfacial reactions resulted in the phase transformations and the growth of complex crystalline and amorphous phases. The principal compositions of these phases were Sr(Fe,Si)12O19, SrOx and amorphous [Sr-Fe-O-Si].
Pulsed laser ablation has been used to deposit thin films of SrFeO25+x (x = 0 to ≈0.5). Previous work has shown that the orientation of the films, determined by powder x-ray diffraction depended strongly upon the deposition temperature. Films grown below 770 K showed little or no orientation. A growth temperature of 900 K resulted in films oriented (200). Growth temperatures of > 1000 K produced films oriented predominantly (110). At 673 K in an oxygen atmosphere, oriented films readily converted from the oxygen deficient brownmillerite form (x=0) to the oxygen rich cubic (or distorted cubic) perovskite form (x≈0.3). Films which exhibited no initial orientation did not react with oxygen under these conditions. Cycling non-oriented films between 230 and 800 ppm of oxygen in 101.3 kPa of nitrogen at 673 K resulted in weak (110) orientation. Once oriented, the films reacted readily with oxygen and exhibited measurable resistance changes. The conversion from oxygen deficient to oxygen rich form was monitored by x-ray diffraction and the DC resistance of the films.
Pulsed laser ablation has been used to deposit thin perovskite films based on the formula: SrFeO2.5+x (x = 0 to ≈ 0.5). Good quality films have been deposited on (1102) and AT cut quartz substrates at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1130 K. Films grown below 770 K showed little or no preferential crystallinity. Temperatures around 913 K produced films predominantly oriented (200), while temperatures greater than 1000 K produced films with (110) orientation. Films were grown from pellets of two compositions (SrFeO2.5, and SrFeO≈3). The former had a higher ablation threshold than the latter. The atmosphere during cooling had a greater effect on the film's oxygen content than the growth atmosphere. Films cooled in vacuum had the brownmillerite structure (x=0), whereas films cooled in 53.3 kPa oxygen had the cubic perovskite structure (x≈0.5).
The serum and CSF of 66 patients with functional psychoses were tested for immunoglobulins and antibodies to measles, HSV-1, CMV, and rubella viruses. Ten surgical and 80 neurological patients were controls. There were no significant findings in the serum, consistent with most previous studies. In the CSF 6 of 17 multiple admission schizophrenic patients had definite elevations of IgG or measles antibody and differed significantly from the surgical controls. Immunologically this group resembled the seriously ill neurological patients. No previous study has been made of immunoglobulins or viral antibodies in the CSF of psychiatric patients. It is concluded that further work is warranted in a search for biological subgroups of schizophrenia.
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