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Ralph Waldo Emerson is known to have said, “the greatest wonder is that we can see these trees and not wonder more.” As industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists, we often encounter this very dilemma when we examine how numerous professions rise and fall in relevance. More recently, however, we have encountered this dilemma from an existential perspective as we strive to understand the evolution of our own profession and the situational characteristics making change inevitable. We have fallen into a trap—we, too, now look at all of our practices, aiming to reconfigure the makeup of our profession while losing sight of the macrotrends affecting more than just our evolved existence. Rather than focusing on the smaller issue first, we need to start by examining the broader issues affecting it.
Bakaninbreen, a 17 km long glacier terminating in fjord waters in central Spitsbergen (77°45′ N, 17°20′E), began to surge between the springs of 1985 and 1986. By summer 1994 the surge front had reached a position 3 km from the terminus and had almost ceased propagation. Structural investigations were undertaken to characterise the tectonic evolution of this thermally complex surge-type glacier, and the role played by thrusting and its effect on debris entrainment. Much of the glacier surface, particularly within and below the surge front, displayed transverse high-angle thrusts, defined by discrete fractures bounded by coarse clear ice. Some fractures were associated with a film of mud, whereas in others a discrete laver of diamicton, with interstitial ice several decimetres thick, was evident. Within the surge front, and genetically related to the thrusts, was a number of shear zones several metres wide. These were defined by fine-grained ice that was the product of the grinding up of crystals during shear (mylonitization). Three main sedimentary facies are associated with the thrusts: mud, gravelly mud and clast-rich muddy diamicton. The diamicton has the character of basal glacial debris: grain-size distribution ranging from clay to cobble size, clasts with a predominance in the sub-angular and sub-rounded classes, and striated and faceted clasts. Hot-water drilling through the glacier revealed several englacial layers above the surge front, and debris brought up on the drill stem suggests a basal origin. At least some of these englacial layers are probably the sub-surface continuations of the thrusts. The observed facies indicate that the glacier is moving over a soft, deformable bed and that thrusting is an important process in transferring debris to the surface, especially when the surge front is propagating down-glacier.
Objectives: Good glycemic control is an important goal of diabetes management. Late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk for poor glycemic control as they move into young adulthood. For a subset of these patients, this dysregulation is extreme, placing them at risk for life-threatening health complications and permanent cognitive declines. The present study examined whether deficiency in emotional decision making (as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) among teens with T1D may represent a neurocognitive risk factor for subsequent glycemic dysregulation. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study, a total of 241 high-school seniors (147 females, 94 males) diagnosed with T1D underwent baseline assessment that included the IGT. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects glycemic control over the course of the past 2 to 3 months, was also assessed at baseline. Of the 241,189 (127 females, 62 males, mean age=17.76, mean HbA1c=8.11) completed HbA1c measurement 1 year later. Results: Baseline IGT performance in the impaired range (per norms) was associated with greater dysregulation in glycemic control 1 year later, as evidenced by an average increase in HbA1c of 2%. Those with normal IGT scores (per norms) exhibited a more moderate increase in glycemic control, with an HbA1c increase of 0.7%. Several IGT scoring approaches were compared, showing that the total scores collapsed across all trials was most sensitive to change in glycemic control. Conclusions: IGT assessment offers promise as a tool for identifying late adolescents at increased risk for glycemic dysregulation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 204–213)
Fe fortification of centrally manufactured and frequently consumed condiments such as bouillon cubes could help prevent Fe deficiency in developing countries. However, Fe compounds that do not cause sensory changes in the fortified product, such as ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), exhibit low absorption in humans. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP) can form soluble complexes with Fe, which could increase Fe bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate Fe bioavailability from bouillon cubes fortified with either FePP only, FePP+NaPP, ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) only, or FeSO4+NaPP. We first conducted in vitro studies using a protocol of simulated digestion to assess the dialysable and ionic Fe, and the cellular ferritin response in a Caco-2 cell model. Second, Fe absorption from bouillon prepared from intrinsically labelled cubes (2·5 mg stable Fe isotopes/cube) was assessed in twenty-four Fe-deficient women, by measuring Fe incorporation into erythrocytes 2 weeks after consumption. Fe bioavailability in humans increased by 46 % (P<0·005) when comparing bouillons fortified with FePP only (4·4 %) and bouillons fortified with FePP+NaPP (6·4 %). Fe absorption from bouillons fortified with FeSO4 only and with FeSO4+NaPP was 33·8 and 27·8 %, respectively (NS). The outcome from the human study is in agreement with the dialysable Fe from the in vitro experiments. Our findings suggest that the addition of NaPP could be a promising strategy to increase Fe absorption from FePP-fortified bouillon cubes, and if confirmed by further research, for other fortified foods with complex food matrices as well.
Not only is depression associated with increased inflammation but inflammation is a risk factor for the genesis of depression. Many of the environmental risk factors for depression are transduced through inflammatory signaling. Anti-inflammatory agents show promise for the management of depression in preclinical, epidemiological, and early clinical studies. This opens the door to the potential for anti-inflammatory agents to treat and prevent depression. There are no evidence-based pharmacotherapies for depression prevention.
ASPREE-D, aspirin in the prevention of depression in the elderly, is a sub study of ASPREE, which explores the potential of aspirin to prevent a range of inflammation related disorders in the elderly. With a sample size of 19,114, and a duration of 5 years, this placebo controlled study will be one of the largest randomized controlled trials in psychiatry and will provide definitive evidence on the ability of aspirin to prevent depression.
This paper presents the rationale for the study and presents a summary of the study design.
ASPREE-D may not only define novel therapy but will provide mechanistic proof of concept of the role of inflammation in depression.
Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection.
The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is an integral part of the Astronomy Digital Library and the collaboration Urania. It provides access to 1 million references and connects these references with many other information centers and their data, such as on-line journals, object databases, and scanned journal articles. This article describes some of the features and links between the ADS and other on-line services.
My career in mathematics has definitely taken me to heights that I never dreamed were possible when I started at Marist College. My original major was computer science but I realized I was just as good at math as computer science, so I decided to go for a dual major. Four years later I graduated with honors and had earned a free scholarship and teaching assistantship at Syracuse University. After two very challenging, and at times difficult years there, I completed my MS in numerical analysis in the summer of 1997. Later that summer I started working for IBM in Fishkill, NY as an assistant Webmaster. I'll admit it helped having a degree in computer science as well as math, but IBM hires a lot of pure math majors, in fact a couple of my co-workers on my current project were also math majors in school.
After a year in Fishkill, I found an opening on the Olympic Internet Team as a Java developer for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games website in Hawthorne, NY. Using my analytical training, I have to come up with ways to query databases full of statistics from different sports and present them on a web page in a clear and concise way, keeping in mind that not all users are going to be experts in the sport I am coding.
The development of effective new tools for structural characterization of disordered materials and systems is becoming increasingly important as such tools provide the key to understanding, and ultimately controlling, their properties. The relatively novel technique of correlograph analysis (i.e., the approach of calculating angular autocorrelations within diffraction patterns) promises unique advantages for probing the local symmetries of disordered structures. Because correlograph analysis examines a component of the high-order four-body correlation function, it is more sensitive to medium-range ordering than conventional diffraction methods. As a follow-up of our previous publication, where we studied thin samples of sputtered amorphous silicon, we describe here the practical experimental method and common systematic errors of electron correlograph analysis. Using both experimental data and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that reliable structural information about the sample can only be extracted from the mean correlograph averaged over a sufficient number of individual results.
We present new imaging data and archival multiwavelength observations of the little-studied emission nebula K 1-6 and its central star. Narrow-band images inHα (+[N II]) and [O III] taken with the Faulkes Telescope North reveal a stratified, asymmetric, elliptical nebula surrounding a central star which has the colours of a late G or early K-type subgiant or giant. GALEX ultraviolet images reveal a very hot subdwarf or white dwarf coincident in position with this star. The cooler, optically dominant star is strongly variable with a period of 21.312± 0.008 days, and is possibly a high-amplitude member of the RS CVn class, although an FK Com classification is also possible. Archival ROSAT data provide good evidence that the cool star has an active corona. We conclude that K 1-6 is most likely an old bona fide planetary nebula at a distance of ∼1.0 kpc, interacting with the interstellar medium, and containing a binary or ternary central star. The observations and data analyses reported in this paper were conducted in conjunction with Year 11 high school students as part of an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant science education project, denoted Space To Grow, conducted jointly by professional astronomers, educational researchers, teachers, and high-school students.
We have observed the existence of medium range order via fluctuation microscopy in amorphous silicon grown at 230°C. We hypothesize that this structure develops during the highly non-equilibrium growth process; high densities of ordered surface nuclei are produced which are subsequently buried and forced into an unfavorable energy state. These nm sized regions are distorted in the bulk due to strain, but remain topologically crystalline. In this work, we alter the growth energetics both at the surface and sub-surface during magnetron sputter film deposition with two kinds of particle bombardment, respectively: a controllable flux of low-energy (20eV) Ar+ ions, and higher energy (100eV) D vs. H neutrals. With this method, we demonstrate for the first time control over the intensity of this medium-range structural order at a constant substrate temperature as seen primarily with fluctuation electron microscopy, but also Raman scattering, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and SAXS. We suggest that these bombardments can increase adspecie surface mobility or drive local sub-surface restructuring (“kinetic annealing”), thus increasing or decreasing the size, density and/or strength of the ordered regions.
TEM provides fast and statistical support for magnetic recording media development. Turn-around time including sample preparation, data collection and computer analysis is reduced to ∼3 hours. Rapid, systematic TEM analysis is shown to accurately measure crystallographic Orientation Ratio (OR) on mechanically textured media by diffraction analysis; elucidate grain separation by Weak Beam Dark Field Imaging; and determine the crystallographic relationship between cubic-NiAl seed layers and hexagonal cobalt-alloy (Co) layers. Novel evidence for reduction of the number of preferred orientations in sequentially grown epitaxial films is presented, which explains the “2-&-1/4-D isotropic” growth orientation and the high magnetic squareness of Co media grown on nearly randomly oriented “3D-isotropic” NiAl underlayers.
A multilayered Si doped MBE structure was used to study the effective diffusivity of Si and the results are modeled with an (n/ni)2 dependence over the temperature range of 750°C – 950°C. An activation energy, Ea′, of 4.0 eV is obtained which is higher than normally reported in the literature. This higher Ea′ value results from appropriate accounting of the temperature dependence of ni, which is often neglected in the expression for Deff. Si diffusion at a buried n+/n++junction of a MOCVD grown structure also follows an (n/ni)2 dependence. These results support a Fermi-level model of Si diffusion in GaAs and suggest that the local point defect chemistry of the GaAs, through Si doping, is responsible for this diffusion behavior, regardless of the proximity to the surface.