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Giant foxtail, woolly cupgrass, and wild-proso millet infest millions of hectares of land devoted to corn production in the midwestern U.S. Control of these species and effects on corn grain yield were evaluated at various timings using POST applications of nicosulfuron vs. applications of various PRE herbicides at 17 locations across the midwestern U.S. in 1992 and 1993. Nicosulfuron applied to 5 to 10 cm giant foxtail and woolly cupgrass provided greater control than that observed with selected PRE herbicides. Giant foxtail control with nicosulfuron averaged 88%, and control of woolly cupgrass averaged 77% across all sites. Nicosulfuron, applied to 5 to 10 cm wild-proso millet, provided a level of control similar to that of selected PRE herbicides. Corn grain yield was greater when giant foxtail was controlled POST with nicosulfuron vs. PRE control with selected soil-applied herbicides. Corn grain yields were similar when nicosulfuron was applied POST to 5 to 10 cm woolly cupgrass or wild-proso millet vs. PRE control of these grass weeds. Across a broad range of geographical locations, nicosulfuron, applied POST to 5 to 10 cm tall grass, provided greater or similar levels of weed control vs. the selected PRE herbicides, with no deleterious effect on grain yield.
Are there any universal entities? Or is the world populated only by particular things? The problem of universals is one of the most fascinating and enduring topics in the history of metaphysics, with roots in ancient and medieval philosophy. This collection of new essays provides an innovative overview of the contemporary debate on universals. Rather than focusing exclusively on the traditional opposition between realism and nominalism, the contributors explore the complexity of the debate and illustrate a broad range of positions within both the realist and the nominalist camps. Realism is viewed through the lens of the distinction between constituent and relational ontologies, while nominalism is reconstructed in light of the controversy over the notion of trope. The result is a fresh picture of contemporary metaphysics, in which traditional strategies of dealing with the problem of universals are both reaffirmed and called into question.