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The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing is a prospective study of 1,112 individuals (211 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 768 healthy controls (HCs)). Here we report diagnostic and cognitive findings at the first (18-month) follow-up of the cohort. The first aim was to compute rates of transition from HC to MCI, and MCI to AD. The second aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of individuals who transitioned to a more severe disease stage compared with those who did not.
Eighteen months after baseline, participants underwent comprehensive cognitive testing and diagnostic review, provided an 80 ml blood sample, and completed health and lifestyle questionnaires. A subgroup also underwent amyloid PET and MRI neuroimaging.
The diagnostic status of 89.9% of the cohorts was determined (972 were reassessed, 28 had died, and 112 did not return for reassessment). The 18-month cohort comprised 692 HCs, 82 MCI cases, 197 AD patients, and one Parkinson's disease dementia case. The transition rate from HC to MCI was 2.5%, and cognitive decline in HCs who transitioned to MCI was greatest in memory and naming domains compared to HCs who remained stable. The transition rate from MCI to AD was 30.5%.
There was a high retention rate after 18 months. Rates of transition from healthy aging to MCI, and MCI to AD, were consistent with established estimates. Follow-up of this cohort over longer periods will elucidate robust predictors of future cognitive decline.
The use of imaging that employs ionising radiation is increasing in the setting of paediatric cardiology. Children's high radiosensitivity and the lack of contemporary radiation data warrant a review of the radiation doses from the latest “state-of-the-art” angiography and computed tomography systems.
In children aged less than 16 years with congenital cardiac disease, we aimed to report: recent trends in the use of diagnostic angiography and cardiac dual-source computed tomography; the characteristics, lesions, and imaging histories of patients undergoing these procedures; and the average radiation doses imparted by each modality.
Retrospective review of consecutive cases undergoing cardiac computed tomography or diagnostic angiography in a teaching hospital between January, 2008 and December, 2009. Radiation doses were converted to effective doses (millisievert) using published conversion factors.
Angiography was performed 3.7 times more often than computed tomography. Computed tomography examinations increased by 92.5%, whereas angiography decreased by 26.4% in 2009 compared with 2008. Patients undergoing computed tomography were younger and weighed less than those undergoing angiography, but lesions were similar between the 2 groups. Multiple lifetime angiography was more prevalent than multiple lifetime computed tomography (p < 0.001). The median procedural dose – range – from angiography and computed tomography was 5 (0.2–27.8) and 1.7 (0.5–9.5) millisieverts, respectively (p < 0.001).
Despite not being completely analogous investigations, computed tomography should be considered prior to angiography and not withheld on radiation dose concerns, given that it imparts lower and more consistent doses than conventional angiography.