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The mammal family Tenrecidae (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) is endemic to Madagascar. Here we present the conservation priorities for the 31 species of tenrec that were assessed or reassessed in 2015–2016 for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Six species (19.4%) were found to be threatened (4 Vulnerable, 2 Endangered) and one species was categorized as Data Deficient. The primary threat to tenrecs is habitat loss, mostly as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, but some species are also threatened by hunting and incidental capture in fishing traps. In the longer term, climate change is expected to alter tenrec habitats and ranges. However, the lack of data for most tenrecs on population size, ecology and distribution, together with frequent changes in taxonomy (with many cryptic species being discovered based on genetic analyses) and the poorly understood impact of bushmeat hunting on spiny species (Tenrecinae), hinders conservation planning. Priority conservation actions are presented for Madagascar's tenrecs for the first time since 1990 and focus on conserving forest habitat (especially through improved management of protected areas) and filling essential knowledge gaps. Tenrec research, monitoring and conservation should be integrated into broader sustainable development objectives and programmes targeting higher profile species, such as lemurs, if we are to see an improvement in the conservation status of tenrecs in the near future.
Over 90% of the brain is concerned with higher cortical functions, yet understanding of syndromes, functions, and measurements remains unchartered. This valuable handbook illuminates brain function, natural environment and human function, by delving into the interdisciplinary study. Multifaceted in its perspective, this book demonstrates bi-directionality of information exchange between disciplines. This book weaves around key case reports, series, control studies and cohort studies from cognitive neurology registries, to present the most current, practical research. Gaining appreciation for the fundamental formation and assembly of the supervisory area of the brain will inform an understanding of conditions and behavior for neuroscience professionals, clinical brain scientists and medical students in neuroscience, worldwide. Authored by a leading expert in cognitive neurology, this book guides the reader through the evolutionary, or neuro-archeological, aspects of how the frontal lobes and their circuitry were assembled, drawing key insights into form, function and treatment.
The seventh-century AD switch from gold to silver currencies transformed the socio-economic landscape of North-west Europe. The source of silver, however, has proven elusive. Recent research, integrating ice-core data from the Colle Gnifetti drill site in the Swiss Alps, geoarchaeological records and numismatic and historical data, has provided new evidence for this transformation. Annual ice-core resolution data are combined with lead pollution analysis to demonstrate that significant new silver mining facilitated the change to silver coinage, and dates the introduction of such coinage to c. AD 660. Archaeological evidence and atmospheric modelling of lead pollution locates the probable source of the silver to mines at Melle, in France.