The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is an iconic Antarctic species. George Robert Gray attributed the first description to Johann Reinhold Forster during James Cook's voyage of 1772–1775, attribution that persists to this day. Gray therefore honoured Forster in the emperor's scientific name—but he was almost certainly mistaken. Thaddeus von Bellingshausen in 1820 was probably the true first observer. Charles Wilkes in 1840 was next. James Clark Ross in 1841 made important observations and brought specimens home to the British Museum. Edward Wilson and others, in 1902–1903 and 1911 on the two expeditions of Robert F. Scott, discovered and investigated the first breeding colony, substantially advancing knowledge about this remarkable creature.