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The mammal family Tenrecidae (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) is endemic to Madagascar. Here we present the conservation priorities for the 31 species of tenrec that were assessed or reassessed in 2015–2016 for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Six species (19.4%) were found to be threatened (4 Vulnerable, 2 Endangered) and one species was categorized as Data Deficient. The primary threat to tenrecs is habitat loss, mostly as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, but some species are also threatened by hunting and incidental capture in fishing traps. In the longer term, climate change is expected to alter tenrec habitats and ranges. However, the lack of data for most tenrecs on population size, ecology and distribution, together with frequent changes in taxonomy (with many cryptic species being discovered based on genetic analyses) and the poorly understood impact of bushmeat hunting on spiny species (Tenrecinae), hinders conservation planning. Priority conservation actions are presented for Madagascar's tenrecs for the first time since 1990 and focus on conserving forest habitat (especially through improved management of protected areas) and filling essential knowledge gaps. Tenrec research, monitoring and conservation should be integrated into broader sustainable development objectives and programmes targeting higher profile species, such as lemurs, if we are to see an improvement in the conservation status of tenrecs in the near future.
Late-life depression has become an important public health problem. Available evidence suggests that late-life depression is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among older adults living in the community, although the associations have not been comprehensively reviewed and quantified.
To estimate the pooled association of late-life depression with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among community-dwelling older adults.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that examine the associations of late-life depression with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community settings.
A total of 61 prospective cohort studies from 53 cohorts with 198 589 participants were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 49 cohorts reported all-cause mortality and 15 cohorts reported cardiovascular mortality. Late-life depression was associated with increased risk of all-cause (risk ratio 1.34; 95% CI 1.27, 1.42) and cardiovascular mortality (risk ratio 1.31; 95% CI 1.20, 1.43). There was heterogeneity in results across studies and the magnitude of associations differed by age, gender, study location, follow-up duration and methods used to assess depression. The associations existed in different subgroups by age, gender, regions of studies, follow-up periods and assessment methods of late-life depression.
Late-life depression is associated with higher risk of both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among community-dwelling elderly people. Future studies need to test the effectiveness of preventing depression among older adults as a way of reducing mortality in this population. Optimal treatment of late-life depression and its impact on mortality require further investigation.
Cryo-planing SEM provides a powerful 3D view of internal and external tissue and cell features. However, specimen preparation is tedious because it requires custom apparatus and difficult cryogenic manipulations. We present an easy method using mPrep/s capsules that provide a “handle” to hold and orient specimens throughout cryo-preparation and imaging. Cryo-facing is done with a cryo-ultramicrotome, requiring no custom equipment while providing accurate control of the image plane. We show this with fresh Christmas cactus leaves and aldehyde-fixed kidney tissue imaged by room temperature SEM after freeze-drying, demonstrating the method operating without an expensive cryo-SEM.
This work aims at providing guidance through systematic experimental characterization for the design of 3D-printed scaffolds for potential orthopedic applications, focusing on fused deposition modeling with a composite of clinically available polycaprolactone (PCL) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). First, we studied the effect of the chemical composition (0–60% β-TCP/PCL) on the scaffold’s properties. We showed that surface roughness and contact angle were, respectively, proportional and inversely proportional to the amount of β-TCP and that degradation rate increased with the amount of ceramic. Biologically, the addition of β-TCP enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of C3H10. Second, we systematically investigated the effect of the composition and the porosity on the 3D-printed scaffold mechanical properties. Both an increasing amount of β-TCP and a decreasing porosity augmented the apparent Young’s modulus of the 3D-printed scaffolds. Third, as a proof of concept, a novel multimaterial biomimetic implant was designed and fabricated for potential disc replacement.
Machines that learn and think like people must be able to learn from others. Social learning speeds up the learning process and – in combination with language – is a gateway to abstract and unobservable information. Social learning also facilitates the accumulation of knowledge across generations, helping people and artificial intelligences learn things that no individual could learn in a lifetime.
Previous research showing a bilingual advantage on a variety of executive control tasks has typically compared monolinguals and fluent bilinguals. No study to date, however, has examined whether these effects endure for bilingual individuals who revert to monolingualism (‘lapsed bilinguals’). We investigated this question by testing monolinguals, full bilinguals, and lapsed bilinguals on a flanker task and a working memory task. Fully fluent bilinguals exhibited significantly more accurate performance than monolinguals on the working memory task, with lapsed bilinguals performing between the other two groups. Thus, continued bilingual experience appears necessary to maintain these cognitive advantages at a high level.
Migration has been implicated as a risk factor for autism, but evidence
is limited and inconsistent.
To investigate the relationship between parental migration status and
risk of autism spectrum disorder, taking into consideration the
importance of region of origin, timing of migration and possible
discrepancies in associations between autism subtypes.
Record-linkage study within the total child population of Stockholm
County between 2001 and 2007. Individuals with high- and low-functioning
autism were defined as having autism spectrum disorder with and without
comorbid intellectual disability, and ascertained via health and
habilitation service registers.
In total, 4952 individuals with autism spectrum disorder were identified,
comprising 2855 children with high-functioning autism and 2097 children
with low-functioning autism. Children of migrant parents were at
increased risk of low-functioning autism (odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% CI
1.3–1.7); this risk was highest when parents migrated from regions with a
low human development index, and peaked when migration occurred around
pregnancy (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.7–3.0). A decreased risk of
high-functioning autism was observed in children of migrant parents,
regardless of area of origin or timing of migration. Parental age, income
or obstetric complications did not fully explain any of these
Environmental factors associated with migration may contribute to the
development of autism presenting with comorbid intellectual disability,
especially when acting in utero. High- and
low-functioning autism may have partly different aetiologies, and should
be studied separately.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
In recognition of the Silver Jubilee of the Ecclesiastical Law Society and this Journal, the Comment section in this issue is devoted to some personal reminiscences and reflections from two individuals who were very much involved at the time, and who have subsequently made their own distinctive contribution to the Society and the Journal respectively: Bishop Christopher Hill, the current chairman, and Michael Goodman, founder editor of this Journal.
The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children's early behavioral adjustment at risk.
Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) have been used to study the chemisorption properties of carbon monoxide on potassium predosed Pt. SIMS cluster ions (such as K+, K2+, KO+ and KCO+) were monitored to probe, K-CO interactions. Large changes in the SIMS yields are observed as the potassium coverage is varied. The SIMS results are correlated with previous work function change and TPD studies. Temperature programmed secondary ion mass spectrometry of potassium-containing ions indicates a local interaction between potassium and CO molecules.
As typically observed on transition metal surfaces, two different CO TPD states are observed. The lower temperature state shifts to higher temperatures with increasing potassium coverage and to lower temperatures with increasing CO exposure. The high temperature CO state builds in with increasing potassium coverage and is accompanied by simultaneous potassium desorption. Evidence for the occurrence of both long-range (indirect) and short-range (direct) potassium effects on adsorbed CO is presented.
A cylindrically symmetric, electrically driven, dissipative, energy-conserving magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model is considered. The high-magnetic-field Braginskii electron electrical resistivity η parallel to a constant axial magnetic field B and ion thermal conductivity ĸ perpendicular to B are included in an energy equation and in Ohm's law. The expressions for η and ĸ depend on number density and temperature, which are functions of radius that are obtained as part of the equilibrium solution. The model has plasma-confining solutions, by which are meant solutions characterized by the separation of the plasma into two regions separated by a relatively thin transition region that is an internal boundary layer across which temperature and current density vary rapidly. The inner region has a temperature, pressure and current density that are much larger than in the outer region. The number density and thermal conductivity attain their minimum values in the transition region. The model has an intrinsic value of β, about 6.6%, which must be exceeded in order that a plasma-confining solution exist. The model has an intrinsic length scale, which, for plasma-confining solutions, is a measure of the thickness of the transition region separating the inner and outer regions of plasma. A larger class of transport coefficients is modelled by artificially changing η and ĸ by changing the constant coefficients ηO and ĸO that occur in their expressions. Increasing ĸO transforms a state that does not exhibit confinement into one that does, improves the confinement in a state that already exhibits it, and leads to an increase in ĸ in the confined region of plasma. The improvement in confinement consists in a decrease in the thickness of the transition region. Decreasing ηO subject to certain constraints, also transforms a state that does not exhibit confinement into one that does, improves the confinement in a state that already exhibits it, and leads to a decrease in η in the confined region of plasma. Increasing ηO up to a critical point increases the current, temperature, and volume of the confined region of plasma, and causes the thickness of the transition region to increase. If ηO is increased beyond the critical point, a plasma-confining state cannot exist. In all cases it is found that an increase in ĸ and a decrease in η in the confined region of plasma are associated with an improvement in the confinement properties of the equilibrium state. If the pressure and temperature are given on the cylinder wall, the equilibrium bifurcates when the electric field decreases below a critical value. The equilibrium can bifurcate into a state that exhibits confinement and a state that does not.