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Vulnerability to depression can be measured in different ways. We here examine how genetic risk factors are inter-related for lifetime major depression (MD), self-report current depressive symptoms and the personality trait Neuroticism.
We obtained data from three population-based adult twin samples (Virginia n = 4672, Australia #1 n = 3598 and Australia #2 n = 1878) to which we fitted a common factor model where risk for ‘broadly defined depression’ was indexed by (i) lifetime MD assessed at personal interview, (ii) depressive symptoms, and (iii) neuroticism. We examined the proportion of genetic risk for MD deriving from the common factor v. specific to MD in each sample and then analyzed them jointly. Structural equation modeling was conducted in Mx.
The best fit models in all samples included additive genetic and unique environmental effects. The proportion of genetic effects unique to lifetime MD and not shared with the broad depression common factor in the three samples were estimated as 77, 61, and 65%, respectively. A cross-sample mega-analysis model fit well and estimated that 65% of the genetic risk for MD was unique.
A large proportion of genetic risk factors for lifetime MD was not, in the samples studied, captured by a common factor for broadly defined depression utilizing MD and self-report measures of current depressive symptoms and Neuroticism. The genetic substrate for MD may reflect neurobiological processes underlying the episodic nature of its cognitive, motor and neurovegetative manifestations, which are not well indexed by current depressive symptom and neuroticism.
This work aims at providing guidance through systematic experimental characterization for the design of 3D-printed scaffolds for potential orthopedic applications, focusing on fused deposition modeling with a composite of clinically available polycaprolactone (PCL) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). First, we studied the effect of the chemical composition (0–60% β-TCP/PCL) on the scaffold’s properties. We showed that surface roughness and contact angle were, respectively, proportional and inversely proportional to the amount of β-TCP and that degradation rate increased with the amount of ceramic. Biologically, the addition of β-TCP enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of C3H10. Second, we systematically investigated the effect of the composition and the porosity on the 3D-printed scaffold mechanical properties. Both an increasing amount of β-TCP and a decreasing porosity augmented the apparent Young’s modulus of the 3D-printed scaffolds. Third, as a proof of concept, a novel multimaterial biomimetic implant was designed and fabricated for potential disc replacement.
Maternal vitamin D deficiency may increase risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but direct evidence is lacking.
To clarify the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and offspring risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability.
Using a register-based total population study (N=509 639), we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIS) of ASD with and without intellectual disability in relation to lifetime diagnoses of maternal vitamin D deficiency. Although rare, such deficiency was associated with offspring risk of ASD with, but not without, intellectual disability (aORs 2.51, 95% CI 1.22–5.16 and 1.28, 0.68–2.42). Relationships were stronger in non-immigrant children.
If reflecting associations for prenatal hypovitaminosis, these findings imply gestational vitamin D substitution as a means of ASD prevention.
Research into workplace bullying has only recently begun to investigate preventative measures. This paper continues that emphasis by examining the management of bullying in a sample of New Zealand organisations. In this study, the survey results from 252 occupational health and safety practitioners were analysed to examine how bullying is understood and managed, along with factors that predict preventative efforts. Results indicate that bullying was perceived to impact significantly on organisations, although the organisations had limited preventative measures in place. The findings confirm the importance of leadership and the establishment of an effective bully-free environment as preventative measures.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has a significant impact on the patients’ quality of life (QOL). This is an initial literature review of QOL in patients with BDD, examining the extent of QOL impairments, the impact of psychiatric comorbidity on QOL, and the effect of treatment on QOL in BDD. Studies were identified through PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO searches from 1960–2011 using the keywords: “quality of life,” “body dysmorphic disorder,” “dysmorphophobia,” and “body image.” Studies included in this review were selected using specific criteria by two authors reaching consensus. Most BDD research studies have used symptom severity measures mainly to study BDD and its treatments. BBD with or without comorbidities is significantly associated with poor QOL and functioning. Studies show that treatment of BDD, either by psychopharmacological treatments such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or cognitive behavior therapy, might have positive effects on QOL, although these results need to be replicated in larger studies. In conclusion, QOL could add significant value to the assessment of BDD if used as one of the primary measures in research and clinical work in BDD, by providing more information and clearer understanding on the impact of the illness on satisfaction with activities of daily life and overall sense of wellbeing before and after treatment.
Goatsrue is a member of the Fabaceae family, native to Europe and western Asia. It contains the toxic alkaloid galegine. The objective of the study was to describe galegine concentration in aboveground goatsrue plant parts and total galegine pools over phenological growth stages. Twenty goatsrue plants at four locations were selected and a stalk was harvested from each at five stages of phenological development and separated into parts. Plant parts were freeze-dried, ground, and analyzed with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Galegine concentration was significantly different in plant tissues; reproductive tissues had the highest levels of galegine (7 mg g−1), followed by leaf (4 mg g−1) and finally stem (1 mg g−1) tissues. Galegine concentration and pools varied over plant tissues and phenological growth stages. Galegine pools (dry weight by concentration) or the total amount of galegine per stalk were lowest at the vegetative growth stage (2 mg stalk−1) and increased until reaching a maximum at the immature pod stage (91 mg stalk−1). The pools decreased nearly in half (48 mg stalk−1) by the mature seed stage. Like galegine pools, galegine concentration also reached a maximum at the immature pod stage (4 mg g−1), and decreased by nearly half by the mature seed stage (2 mg g−1). The increased levels of galegine pools at immature pod stage corresponds with the time of meadow hay harvest, implying that goatsrue is potentially most toxic at the phenological stage when it is likely to be harvested as a contaminant in meadow hay.
In May 2009, we investigated a hospital outbreak of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) infection among healthcare personnel (HCP). Thirteen (65%) of 20 HCP with pH1N1 infection had healthcare-associated cases, which were primarily attributed to transmission among HCP. Eleven (55%) of HCP with pH1N1 infection worked for 1 day or more after the onset of illness. Personnel working with mild illness may have contributed to transmission among HCP.
The preparation, characterization and pyrolytic conversion to silicon-containing ceramics of two types of polymers – a series of poly(ureidosilazanes) and poly(silylenecarbodiimides) – are described. The former appears to have some promise as a preceramic polymer.
We have carried out a series of charge transient measurements on a-Si:H in which we insert a double temperature step during the period when electrons are being emitted from deep defects. The behavior of this emitted defect charge is completely inconsistent with any density of states that remains static during the emission; that is, defect relaxation must be invoked. Such measurements allow us to separate the temperature dependence of relaxation from that of thermal emission. In particular, we demonstrate that the emission itself exhibits thermally activated behavior in spite of the ongoing relaxation processes.
First principles total energy calculations were performed in order to characterize O vacancy defects in Ta2O5. A simplified version of the crystalline orthorhombic phase of Ta2O5 was used in this study. Results indicate that O vacancies in Ta2O5 can be broadly classified based on their location in the lattice. One type of vacancies (occupying the “in-plane” sites) displays deep or mid gap occupied states, and shallow unoccupied states, while a second type (occupying “cap” sites) results in shallow occupied states. For a wide range of local Fermi level or chemical potential, the neutral and +2 charged states of the in-plane type vacancy and the +2 charge state of the cap type vacancy are found to be most stable. Migration energies of the two types of vacancies in the neutral and +2 charge states are markedly different, with the “cap” type of vacancies displaying very high barriers to migration (∼ 5 eV) compared to the “in-plane” type (∼ 0.5–1.0 eV).
Photonic Band Gap (PBG) crystals are artificially engineered structures of periodically alternating dielectric materials that enable manipulation of light in unique ways. As proposed by O. Toader and S. John, large bandwidth PBG crystals based on the diamond lattice can be constructed by fabricating a two-dimensional periodic array of silicon square spirals. Furthermore, an improved photonic crystal can be constructed by fabricating the inverse of this structure, such that void square spirals are situated in a silicon backfill. This structure yields a theoretical maximum PBG of 24%, while the direct silicon square spiral structure yields a theoretical maximum of 16%. 
The direct silicon square spiral structure has previously been successfully fabricated using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process . The GLAD fabrication process uses advanced substrate motion and oblique incidence deposition to engineer precise nanostructures such as helices, chevrons, or polygonal spirals. These nanostructures are grown with lateral and longitudinal periodicity using a pre-patterned substrate consisting of a tetragonal array of relief structures.
Upon successful fabrication of the direct silicon square spiral structure, it was proposed that fabrication of the inverse structure could be completed using a backfill process with a silica template . A periodic array of silica square spirals would be fabricated using the GLAD technique. The template would then be filled with amorphous silicon using low-pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD). To reveal the inverse silicon structure, the silica template would be removed by means of chemical etching with an isotropic chemical etchant. Creation of a suitable template for the inversion of silicon square spirals is an important step in the realization of the inverse silicon square spiral PBG crystal. However, we have seen empirically that silica square spiral films grown directly via the GLAD technique are structurally inferior to silicon films. We present an intermediate step for the fabrication of a suitable template, whereby a silicon structure is fabricated with appropriate geometries and subsequently oxidized. The procedure has been optimized to ensure a thorough oxidization of the silicon posts, while minimally distorting the structure of the square spiral template.
The feasibility of micro total analysis systems (μTAS) on microchips based on the concept of a monolithic instrument is demonstrated. In such a device a microfluidic layer system is deposited in a backend process on a conventional CMOS integrated circuit with the aim to achieve cost and performance enhancements through integration and miniaturization. Experimental results on elementary functional components of a μTAS are presented including a narrow channel electroosmotic micropump, a micro mass flow meter using the thermal anemometric principle, a micro cytometer with integrated optical detection, and elementary structures for on-chip micro-capillary electrophoresis.
Streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, flow during the summer melt season (4–12 weeks) when air temperatures are close to the freezing point of water. Because of the low precipitation rates, streams originate from glacial meltwater and flow to closed-basin lakes on the valley floor. Water samples have been collected from the streams in the Dry Valleys since the start of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research project in 1993 and these have been analysed for ions and nutrient chemistry. Controls such as landscape position, morphology of the channels, and biotic and abiotic processes are thought to influence the stream chemistry. Sea-salt derived ions tend to be higher in streams that are closer to the ocean and those streams that drain the Taylor Glacier in western Taylor Valley. Chemical weathering is an important process influencing stream chemistry throughout the Dry Valleys. Nutrient availability is dependent on landscape age and varies with distance from the coast. The streams in Taylor Valley span a wide range in composition and total dissolved solids and are surprisingly similar to a wide range of much larger temperate and tropical river systems.