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This paper provides a metric for determining whether a given pair of English words is perceived to be morphologically related, based on objective measurements of the words’ orthographic, phonetic, and semantic similarity to each other. The metric is developed on the basis of results from a behavioural study in which participants were asked to judge the relative similarity of pairs of words. The metric is intended to help researchers determine which forms in a language plausibly have segments that alternate; as an example, it is applied to the lexicon of English to illustrate its utility in calculating the frequency of alternation of [s] and [ʃ].
Enlightened Edinburgh was in some degree alien territory to Adam Ferguson. He stood to the fore in its intellectual life but he was a Highlander while the rest of the enlightened literati were Lowlanders. The gap between the Highlands and the Lowlands yawned wider in the eighteenth century than it has since or does now. This essay seeks to trace its significance in Ferguson's work.
Like all Highlanders, Ferguson had to come to terms with the huge changes wrought on his native region by the two failed Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745. The ancestral system of clans and chieftains had been decaying before, but with this evidence of its continuing disruptive potential the British state decided to eradicate it. Here historical change, always a matter of interest to the enlightened literati, went into fast-forward. By the time of Ferguson's maturity, the old Highland institutions were dead or dying yet nothing of equal strength and utility had replaced them. The fact that these changes were induced, and had not so far produced an outcome recognizable to stadial theory, may explain his reluctance to make use of them in his work: it was just too early to assess what had been going on. All the same, he offers enough allusion to indicate how he might have interrogated the evidence had it been more amenable to the theory. In retrospect, we may be able to fill in some of the gaps.
The place where Ferguson was born in 1723, Logierait in Perthshire, lay just north of what later became known as the Highland line, marking the division from the Lowlands. It was in fact a multiple line. It was in the first place topographical, joining the points where the ground rose from gentler terrain to over 1,000 feet. The Highland massif is dissected by long, narrow glens and Logierait stands near the lower end of two of them. It is not far either from the Pass of Killiecrankie where a road across the mountains debouches into the low country, scene of the great Jacobite victory in 1689.
The formal commissioning of the IRWG occurred at the 1991 Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The meeting justification, papers, and conclusions, can be found in Milone (1989). In summary, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same “JHKLMNQ” designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the spectral windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
The formal origin of the IRWG occured at the Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The situation is summarized in Milone (1989). In short, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same JHKLMNQ designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the atmospheric windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
X-linked incomplete achromatopsia (XIA), also called blue-cone
monochromacy (BCM), is a rare cone disorder that most commonly results
either from one of two conditions.. The first condition is a deletion
of the locus control region (LCR) which is a critical DNA element that
lies upstream of the L and M photopigment gene array on the
X-chromosome and is necessary for expression of the photopigment genes.
The second condition is an inactivating point mutation within the
coding sequence of the remaining photopigment gene in an array from
which all but one gene has been deleted. Many previous studies have
concluded that affected individuals either have only rods and S-cones
(Blackwell & Blackwell, 1957, 1961; Daw & Enoch,
1973; Hess et al., 1989) or have rods,
S-cones, and another cone type that contains the rod pigment (Pokorny et al., 1970; Alpern et
al., 1971). However, Smith et al. (1983) described individuals with XIA who had
residual L-cone function. Here we report results for a subject with XIA
who appears to have residual M-cone function. Genetic analysis revealed
that he had apparently normal genes for M-cone photopigment thus
leaving open the possibility that he has a contribution to vision based
on expression of these genes at a very low level.
The assessment of childhood depression is a function of the definition of depression, namely, a single-symptom, symptom cluster, or categorical approach. Furthermore, the assumptions associated with these approaches underpin the development and selection of assessment devices which fall into three main categories: self-report measures, parent, teacher and peer reports, and diagnostic clinical interviews. In describing, exemplifying, and evaluating these measurement techniques, their relationship with the definitional assumptions will be demonstrated through a critical review of the literature. The related and crucial issues of comorbidity and informant variability will also be examined.
For revisionism to occur, an orthodoxy of some vitality, political and intellectual, must exist. In the case of the 1919 settlement with Germany, revisionism of a certain kind emerged within the British Empire delegation and its epistemic community of experts sufficiently early and with enough credibility and vigor to affect what became the most tenuous of orthodoxies, the final treaty. Then and since, in British official and scholarly circles, revisionism has flourished to an extent that it has virtually institutionalized paradox - to defend the 1919 settlement would be revisionist. This state of affairs has come to pass, moreover, without there being a satisfactory account of British policy at the Paris Peace Conference.
Revisionism about the 1919 peace treaty has ranged in scope from the most abstract to the most pointed, instrumental level of analysis. It took two forms - political and historical - both driven by competitive interpretation. The former preceded and grounded the latter, and then recruited it. The distinction between them was, initially, sharp and clear; it became less so over time. Statesmen and officials, David Lloyd George, the prime minister, and Harold Nicolson, Foreign Office official, for example, became historians of a kind; historians, like economists and lawyers, populated temporarily officialdom. In some cases one can trace change - E. H. Carr the liberal idealist of 1919, expecting so much of Lloyd George and then turning, disillusioned, on him, and becoming the ultimately celebrated realist of 1939 - in others dogged consistency and determined defense of self.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) in enhancing the self-esteem of adolescent males. Six subjects were observed over a twenty-week period. At weekly intervals three measures of self-esteem were made: a self-report measure (using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory - CSEI) and two unobtrusive measures (Parent and Teacher Reports). Between the tenth and eleventh observations each subject participated in ten individual sessions of RET. Data from these observations were analysed by Interrupted Time-Series Analyses. The results indicated that the RET was effective in enhancing self-esteem. However, the treatment's effectiveness on the CSEI sub-scales was marginally differential. The main conclusion from the study was that RET is an effective therapy for enhancing the self-esteem of adolescents. The implication for education was that RET is an appropriate therapy for school counsellors dealing with adolescents who have self-esteem problems.
On 7 December 1916 David Lloyd George became prime minister, leading the second coalition government of the war. No archival sources of significance remain to be consulted to help explain how and why the particular composition of the new government emerged. A great deal has been written on the first years of the war, from many perspectives, but a satisfactory political history of Asquith's two administrations remains to be crafted. A sustained narrative, set in the appropriate context, which relates the political significance of the issues to the drama of politics, to the way individuals lose office and governments fall, which establishes trends, and measures cumulative effects is still unwritten.