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Land and water management practices have been widely implemented in rural Mali since the 1980s to improve agricultural productivity and erosion control. Under conditions of recurring droughts, these practices are expected to increase farmers' ability to cope with shocks. One of the most common practices applied in the central and southern parts of Mali is contour bunding (CB). In this study the impact of the CB technology is evaluated with a focus on biophysical and socio-economic benefits. Data were collected in two agro-ecologies of southern Mali and were generated through field experimentation and household survey. Field experimentation involved implementation of contour lines with farm ridges, agronomic trails and runoff and erosion measurements. Agronomic data was collected on sorghum, maize, groundnut and millet for three consecutive years (2015 to 2017). Socio-economic data on the use of CB was obtained from individual farmer surveys. CB involves the layout of contour lines with land leveling devices to identify points of equal elevation and construction of contour lines with draught animals and human labor. The majority of the labor input to construct and maintain the CB comes from adult men who are head of the household (58%) and youth male (33%). Results indicate that with the application of CB yield of crops was higher with the highest increase in grain yield and biomass obtained for maize and millet (P < 0.01). CB application was useful in retaining soil water and reduced erosion rate. In treatment fields, 162 mm of rainfall per year was saved as soil moisture and on average 13,090 kg per hectare of soil was lost from farm fields without CB, and CB implementation significantly reduced the soil loss by 163% (P < 0.01). The improvements in crops yield and biomass, and the retention of soil nutrients positively changed farm level productivity conditions. The majority of farmers (78%) perceived higher income from the sale of crops grown on CB plots. These results suggest the landscape wide application of CB.
New cryogenic characterization techniques for exploring the nanoscale structure and chemistry of intact solid–liquid interfaces have recently been developed. These techniques provide high-resolution information about buried interfaces from large samples or devices that cannot be obtained by other means. These advancements were enabled by the development of instrumentation for cryogenic focused ion beam liftout, which allows intact solid–liquid interfaces to be extracted from large samples and thinned to electron-transparent thicknesses for characterization by cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy or atom probe tomography. Future implementation of these techniques will complement current strides in imaging of materials in fluid environments by in situ liquid-phase electron microscopy, providing a more complete understanding of the morphology, surface chemistry, and dynamic processes that occur at solid–liquid interfaces.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of air stable cobalt and nickel complexes based on tridentate enaminones N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylethyldiamine (Htfb-dmeda) and N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylpropyldiamine (Htfb-dmpda) successfully produced metallic cobalt and nickel thin films. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the binding interaction of the first precursor monolayer with the surface functional groups elucidated the chemisorption behavior of the new precursor systems. A reactive remote hydrogen plasma was used as the co-reactant to activate the precursor decomposition yielding metal hydroxide intermediates. Subsequent hydrogen plasma etching of as-deposited films resulted in phase-pure metallic films through a recrystallization process, verified by surface and sub-surface XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses revealed pinhole-free films, with low surface roughness (0.2 ± 0.06 nm root mean square, RMS) for both, cobalt and nickel thin films. Herein, the competitive role of hydrogen as etchant and reactant was demonstrated as prolonged plasma exposure time periods resulted in the formation of metal hydrides. This is mostly due to the catalytic dissociation of molecular hydrogen on transition metal surfaces, which already occurs upon low energy input.
Background: Standardized data collection for traumatic brain injury (TBI) (including concussion) using common data elements (CDEs) has strengthened clinical care and research capacity in the United States and Europe. Currently, Ontario healthcare providers do not collect uniform data on adult patients diagnosed with concussion. Objective: The Ontario Concussion Care Strategy (OCCS) is a collaborative network of multidisciplinary healthcare providers, brain injury advocacy groups, patient representatives, and researchers with a shared vision to improve concussion care across the province, starting with the collection of standardized data. Methods: The International Framework of Functioning Disability and Health was selected as the conceptual framework to inform the selection of CDEs. The CDEs recommended by the OCCS were identified using key literature, including the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Zurich Consensus Statements for concussion in sport and the Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation Concussion/mTBI clinical guidelines. Results: The OCCS has recommended and piloted CDEs for Ontario that are readily available at no cost, clinically relevant, patient friendly, easy to interpret, and recognized by the international scientific community. Conclusions: The implementation of CDEs can help to shift Ontario toward internationally recognized standard data collection, and in so doing yield a more comprehensive evidence-based approach to care while also supporting rigorous research.
Although there is a significant willingness to respond to disasters, a review of post-event reports following incidents shows troubling repeated patterns with poorly integrated response activities and response managers inadequately trained for the requirements of disasters. This calls for a new overall approach in disaster management.
An in-depth review of the education and training opportunities available to responders and disaster managers has been undertaken, as well as an extensive review of the educational competencies and their parent domains identified by subject matter experts as necessary for competent performance.
Seven domains of competency and competencies that should be mastered by disaster mangers were identified. This set of domains and individual competencies was utilized to define a new and evolving curriculum. In order to evaluate and assess the mastery of each competency, objectives were more widely defined as activities under specific topics, as the measurable elements of the curriculum, for each managerial level.
This program enables interagency cooperation and collaboration and could be used to increase and improve decision-makers’ understanding of disaster managers’ capabilities; at the strategic/tactical level to promote the knowledge and capability of the disaster managers themselves; and as continuing education or further career development for disaster managers at the operational level. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:854–873)
Borderline personality disorder is associated with deficits in personality functioning and mentalisation. In a randomised controlled trial 104 people with borderline personality disorder received either transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) or treatment by experienced community therapists. Among other outcome variables, mentalisation was assessed by means of the Reflective Functioning Scale (RF Scale). Findings revealed only significant improvements in reflective function in the TFP group within 1 year of treatment. The between-group effect was of medium size (d = 0.45). Improvements in reflective function were significantly correlated with improvements in personality organisation.
Emergency medicine point-of-care ultrasonography (EM-PoCUS) is a core competency for residents in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and College of Family Physicians of Canada emergency medicine (EM) training programs. Although EM-PoCUS fellowships are currently offered in Canada, there is little consensus regarding what training should be included in a Canadian EM-PoCUS fellowship curriculum or how this contrasts with the training received in an EM residency.
To conduct a systematic needs assessment of major stakeholders to define the essential elements necessary for a Canadian EM-PoCUS fellowship training curriculum.
We carried out a national survey of experts in EM-PoCUS, EM residency program directors, and EM residents. Respondents were asked to identify competencies deemed either nonessential to EM practice, essential for general EM practice, essential for advanced EM practice, or essential for EM-PoCUS fellowship trained (‘‘expert’’) practice.
The response rate was 81% (351 of 435). PoCUS was deemed essential to general EM practice for basic cardiac, aortic, trauma, and procedural imaging. PoCUS was deemed essential to advanced EM practice in undifferentiated symptomatology, advanced chest pathologies, and advanced procedural applications. Expert-level PoCUS competencies were identified for administrative, pediatric, and advanced gynecologic applications. Eighty-seven percent of respondents indicated that there was a need for EM-PoCUS fellowships, with an ideal length of 6 months.
This is the first needs assessment of major stakeholders in Canada to identify competencies for expert training in EM-PoCUS. The competencies should form the basis for EM-PoCUS fellowship programs in Canada.
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
We are the daheh shasti (the 60s, the sixties [1980s])
generation. We are now scattered around the world. We wear
colorful clothes but our insides are all black, dark, and depressed
... we want to extract this bitterness from life and show it to
you the way Gholam Hossein Sa’edi did. We are the
most screwed up generation.
We are the Khāmushi generation, born and raised under those
periods of khāmushi [lights turned off, silenced, asphyxiated].
We have had no voice. We want to have a voice.
–Radio Khāmushi podcast, Tehran, spring 2009
I. Introduction: The Topological Twist and the Traumatic Self
In January 2009, the Ministry of Health of the Islamic Republic of Iran issued a statement that there was too much sadness in the country and that new programs in engineering happiness should be introduced. Of the three differently culturally marked generations born since the 1979 Islamic revolution, a central one, “the 1360s (1980s) generation,” calls itself the “khamushi or silenced generation” or “the ‘lights out’ generation,” stemming from its experiences of the bombings of Iran’s cities during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–8) huddled in darkened basements and bomb shelters. Now in their thirties, many are successful professionals. Many have left Iran, but still suffer the psychological effects, manifested in nightmares and other symptoms of generational and transgenerational emotional repressions. Many other well-educated adults are unemployed in Iran (Behrouzan, 2010a). The 2009 underground podcast serial Radio Khamushi is one of the media that voice this generational experience. Blogs are another of the media used as affective spaces in which shared traumas can be retrospectively recognized and shared, shattering the suffering in isolation and fear of public articulation.
The phenomenological description of melancholia we use in our title is from a much older discursive time, from the famous Persian physician Ali ibn al-Majusi (d. 982–4), whose medical textbook was studied in Europe as the Liber Regalis or Regalis Dispositio and is technically about one particular kind of melancholia but illustrates a poetic power that both articulates the disjunction between public face and private feeling, repeated in the epigram from Radio Khamushi, and draws upon a rich nexus of continuing symbols that every Iranian knows.
Thirty-nine hemodialysis patients with permanent central venous catheters were analyzed for bacterial catheter colonization comparing different catheter-lock strategies. The closed needleless Tego connector with sodium chloride lock solution was significantly more frequently colonized with bacteria than the standard catheter caps with antimicrobially active citrate lock solution (odds ratio, 0.22 [95% confidence interval, 0.07–0.71]; P = .011).
We identified ikaite crystals (CaCO3·6H2O) and examined their shape and size distribution in first-year Arctic pack ice, overlying snow and slush layers during the spring melt onset north of Svalbard. Additional measurements of total alkalinity (TA) were made for melted snow and sea-ice samples. Ikaite crystals were mainly found in the bottom of the snowpack, in slush and the surface layers of the sea ice where the temperature was generally lower and salinity higher than in the ice below. Image analysis showed that ikaite crystals were characterized by a roughly elliptical shape and a maximum caliper diameter of 201.0±115.9 μm (n = 918). Since the ice-melting season had already started, ikaite crystals may already have begun to dissolve, which might explain the lack of a relationship between ikaite crystal size and sea-ice parameters (temperature, salinity, and thickness of snow and ice). Comparisons of salinity and TA profiles for melted ice samples suggest that the precipitation/dissolution of ikaite crystals occurred at the top of the sea ice and the bottom of the snowpack during ice formation/melting processes.