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A major goal of Gardner, Ryan, and Snoeyink (2018) was to determine what steps are needed moving forward in examining gender representation in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Specifically, on the topic of pay differences, we highlight that gender differences in pay are in part due to differences in negotiation behaviors and/or experiences. Prior research demonstrates that female negotiators receive greater backlash than male negotiators—a possible explanation to why men tend to negotiate more often and more successfully than women (Bowles, Babcock, & Lai, 2007). Based on this evidence, one next step in moving forward should involve providing resources and knowledge to improve negotiation skills and practices specifically aimed at eliminating differences between women and men in both propensity to negotiate and the evaluation/consequences of negotiating.
Accumulating evidence indicates that the fetal environment plays an important role in brain development and sets the brain on a trajectory across the life span. An abnormal fetal environment results when factors that should be present during a critical period of development are absent or when factors that should not be in the developing brain are present. While these factors may acutely disrupt brain function, the real cost to society resides in the long-term effects, which include important mental health issues. We review the effects of three factors, fetal alcohol exposure, teratogen exposure, and nutrient deficiencies, on the developing brain and the consequent risk for developmental psychopathology. Each is reviewed with respect to the evidence found in epidemiological and clinical studies in humans as well as preclinical molecular and cellular studies that explicate mechanisms of action.
Following recent advances in behavioral and psychiatric epigenetics, researchers are increasingly using epigenetic methods to study prenatal exposure to maternal mood disorder and its effects on fetal and newborn neurobehavior. Despite notable progress, various methodological limitations continue to obscure our understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning prenatal exposure to maternal mood disorder on newborn neurobehavioral development. Here we detail this problem, discussing limitations of the currently dominant analytical approaches (i.e., candidate epigenetic and epigenome-wide association studies), then present a solution that retains many benefits of existing methods while minimizing their shortcomings: epigenetic pathway analysis. We argue that the application of pathway-based epigenetic approaches that target DNA methylation at transcription factor binding sites could substantially deepen our mechanistic understanding of how prenatal exposures influence newborn neurobehavior.
Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.
The prenatal environment shapes the offspring's phenotype; moreover, transgenerational stress and stress during pregnancy may play a role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoids influence neurodevelopment during pregnancy, and there is evidence that BDNF in amniotic fluid is mainly of fetal origin, while the source of glucocorticoids is maternal. We tested the hypothesis that maternal early life stress, psychiatric diagnoses, anxiety, perceived stress, and socioeconomic status influence BDNF and glucocorticoid concentrations in amniotic fluid in the second trimester. We studied 79 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis in the early second trimester and analyzed BDNF, cortisol, and cortisone concentrations in amniotic fluid. The endocrine data were related to maternal early life adversities (Childhood Trauma Questionaire), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), anxiety, socioeconomic status (family income), and the presence of psychiatric diseases. We found BDNF in amniotic fluid to be positively related to maternal early adversity (Childhood Trauma Questionaire). Low family income (socioeconomic status) was related to high amniotic fluid glucocorticoid concentrations. Neither glucocorticoid concentrations nor hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (HSD2) activity could be related to BDNF concentrations in amniotic fluid. Early maternal adverse events may be reflected in the fetal BDNF regulation, and it should be tested whether this relates to differences in neurodevelopment.
We have developed and tested a wide-field photometer to detect extrasolar planet transits from the South Pole. The discovery of transiting planets for which masses can be measured by radial velocity is vital to constrain the models of planet formation and evolution. Short of going to space, the South Pole is the best site from which to carry out a such a survey. Based on results from the Doppler velocity surveys and the Vulcan transit search, we expect to detect 10 to 15 transiting planets in two years of operation at the South Pole.
Better understanding of the functional biology of early angiosperms may clarify ecological factors surrounding their origin and early radiation. Phylogenetic studies identify Amborella, Nymphaeales (water lilies), Austrobaileyales, and Chloranthaceae as extant lineages that branched before the radiation of core angiosperms. Among living plants, these lineages may represent the best models for the ecology and physiology of early angiosperms. Here we combine phylogenetic reconstruction with new data on the morphology and ecophysiology of these plants to infer early angiosperm function. With few exceptions, Amborella, Austrobaileyales, and Chloranthaceae share ecophysiological traits associated with shady, disturbed, and wet habitats. These features include low and easily light-saturated photosynthetic rates, leaf anatomy related to the capture of understory light, small seed size, and clonal reproduction. Some Chloranthaceae, however, possess higher photosynthetic capacities and seedlings that recruit in canopy gaps and other sunny, disturbed habitats, which may have allowed Cretaceous Chloranthaceae to expand into more diverse environments. In contrast, water lilies possess ecophysiological features linked to aquatic, sunny habitats, such as absence of a vascular cambium, ventilating stems and roots, and floating leaves tuned for high photosynthetic rates in full sun. Nymphaeales may represent an early radiation into such aquatic environments. We hypothesize that the earliest angiosperms were woody plants that grew in dimly lit, disturbed forest understory habitats and/or shady streamside settings. This ecology may have restricted the diversity of pre-Aptian angiosperms and living basal lineages. The vegetative flexibility that evolved in the understory, however, may have been a key factor in their diversification in other habitats. Our inferences based on living plants are consistent with many aspects of the Early Cretaceous fossil record and can be tested with further study of the anatomy, chemistry, and sedimentological context of Early Cretaceous angiosperm fossils.
Approaches to patterns of diversification based on counting taxa at a given rank can be misleading, even when all taxa are monophyletic. Such “rank-based” approaches are unable to reflect a hierarchy of evolutionary events because taxa of the same rank cannot be nested within one another. Phylogenetic trees specify an order of origination of characters and clades and can therefore be used in some cases to test hypotheses on causal relationships between characters and changes in diversity. “Tree-thinking” also clarifies discussions of the age of groups, by distinguishing between splitting of the stem-lineage from its sister group and splitting of the crown-group into extant clades.
Cladistic evidence that Pentoxylon, Bennettitales, and Gnetales are the sister group of angiosperms implies that the angiosperm line (angiophytes) existed by the Late Triassic. The presence of primitive members of five basic angiosperm clades indicates that the crown-group (angiosperms) had begun to diversify by the mid-Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian), but not necessarily much earlier. The greatest unresolved issue raised by cladistic analyses concerns the fact that the angiosperm tree can be rooted in two almost equally parsimonious positions. Trees rooted near Magnoliales (among “woody magnoliids”) suggest that the angiosperm radiation may have been triggered by the origin of intrinsic traits, e.g., a fast-growing, rhizomatous habit in the paleoherb and eudicot subgroup. However, trees rooted among paleoherbs, which are favored by rRNA data, imply that these traits are basic for angiosperms as a whole. This could mean that the crown-group originated not long before its radiation, or, if it did originate earlier, that its radiation was delayed due to extrinsic factors. Such factors could be a trend from environmental homogeneity and stability in the Jurassic to renewed tectonic activity and disturbance in the Early Cretaceous. Potentially relevant pre-Cretaceous fossils cannot be placed with confidence, but may be located along the stem-lineage (stem angiophytes); their generally paleoherb-like features favor the paleoherb rooting. The history of angiophytes may parallel that of Gnetales: some diversification of the stem-lineage in the Late Triassic, near disappearance in the Jurassic, and vigorous radiation of the crown-group in the Early Cretaceous.
Early findings from a national study of discharges from 32 National
Health Service medium secure units revealed that nearly twice as many
patients than expected were discharged back to prison.
To compare the characteristics of those discharged back to prison with
those discharged to the community, and consider the implications for
ongoing care and risk.
Prospective cohort follow-up design. All forensic patients discharged
from 32 medium secure units across England and Wales over a 12-month
period were identified. Those discharged to prison were compared with
those who were discharged to the community.
Nearly half of the individuals discharged to prison were diagnosed with a
serious mental illness and over a third with schizophrenia. They were a
higher risk, more likely to have a personality disorder, more symptomatic
and less motivated than those discharged to the community.
Findings suggest that alternative models of prison mental healthcare
should be considered to reduce risks to the patient and the public.
This chapter examines the roots of Responsibility to protect (RtoP) in international law and international ethics. It explores how RtoP evolved out of the crisis in Kosovo, and discusses its policy significance today in the controversial case of Libya. Domestically inflicted war crimes and crimes against humanity in non-international, civil-war conflicts are parts of international law outlawed by custom and treaties, including the Rome Statute defining the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. Humanitarian intervention is differentially rooted in international ethics, central and fundamental to Liberalism, marginal and instrumental to Realism, and relevant but tangential to Marxism. It is conflicted in international law, required to stop genocide, but rejected by Charter law. The UN-authorized and NATO-led intervention in Libya in March 2011 was the just-war doctrine's most important test case. The intervention in Libya joined legality (Security Council approval) to legitimacy (the cause of protecting civilians).
At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, UN member states took a dramatic step by putting people rather than states at the center of the UN's agenda. In their Millennium Declaration, the assembled world leaders agreed to a set of breathtakingly broad goals touching on peace through development, the environment, human rights, the protection of the vulnerable, the special needs of Africa, and reforms of UN institutions. Particularly influential was the codification of the Declaration's development-related objectives, which emerged in the summer of 2001 as the now familiar eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be realized by 2015.
The mean abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe based on both strong and weak lines of α Cen A are determined by matching the observed line profiles with those synthesised from stellar atmospheric models and comparing these results with a similar analysis for the Sun. There is good agreement between the abundances from strong and weak lines.
Strong lines should generally be an excellent indicator of abundance and far easier to measure than the weak lines normally used. Until the development of the Anstee, Barklem, and O'Mara (ABO) theory for collisional line broadening, the uncertainty in the value of the damping constant prevented strong lines being used for abundance determinations other than in close differential analyses.
We found that α Cen A has a mean overabundance of 0.12 ± 0.06 dex compared to solar mean abundances. This result agrees remarkably well with previous studies that did not use strong lines or the ABO theory for collisional line broadening. Our result supports the conclusion that reliable abundances can be derived from strong lines provided this new theory for line broadening is used to calculate the van der Waals damping.
We present the proceedings from a two-day workshop held at Swinburne University on 2005 May 24–25. The workshop participants highlighted current Australian research on both theoretical and observational aspects of galaxy groups. These proceedings include short one-page summaries of a number of the talks presented at the workshop. The talks presented ranged from reconciling N-body simulations with observations, to the Hı content of galaxies in groups and the existence of ‘dark galaxies’. The formation and existence of ultra-compact dwarfs in groups, and a new supergroup in Eridanus were also discussed.