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This article examines the theoretical connections between identity and linked fate, extending the latter concept across three countries and four types of (potential) identity groups. This belief, that what happens to one's ethnic group, religious group, region, or class shapes one's own life chances, is an understudied middle ground between ideational and material drivers of political attitudes. The study uses experimental and observational analyses to show that the strength of individuals' beliefs in linked fate and that belief's consequences vary in systematic and predictable ways. From the very material effect of labor market uncertainty to the highly ideational effect of regional identity, linked fate is a cognitive bridge between two very different kinds of social–psychological experiences that can (and should) be applied across a wide range of countries and groups.
Community-based strategies designed to minimize the impact on local emergency services during mass gathering events (MGEs) require evaluation to provide evidence to inform best practice.
This study aimed to describe characteristics and outcomes for people aged 16-18 years requiring emergency care before, during, and after a planned youth MGE “Schoolies week” on the Gold Coast, Australia.
A retrospective observational study was undertaken. Presentations from all young adults to the emergency department (ED) or In-Event Health Service (IEHS) over a 21-day period in 2014 were included. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed to compare across time and to describe characteristics of and outcomes for young adults requiring healthcare.
A total of 1029 presentations were made by youth aged 16 – 18 to the ED and IEHS over the study period (ED: 139 pre, 275 during, and 195 post; IEHS: 420 during). Patient characteristics and outcomes to the ED that varied significantly between pre, during, and post Schoolies periods included patient’s age (higher proportion of 17-year-olds), residing outside the Gold Coast region, and not waiting for treatment. All were higher during Schoolies week. Of the 24,375 MGE attendees, 420 (1.72% [95% CI, 1.57 – 1.89], 17.2/1,000) presented to the IEHS. The majority were toxicology related (n=169, 44.9%). Transportation to hospital rate was low (0.03% [95% CI, 0.01 – 0.06], 0.3/1,000) for the 24,375 MGE attendees.
Findings from this study support previous research indicating that MGEs can impact local emergency healthcare services. The provision of the IEHS may have limited this impact. The recipients of care delivery, predominantly males with trauma- or toxicology-related problems, warrants further investigation. Research describing the structures and processes of the IEHC could further inform health care delivery in and out of hospital settings.
Comparable household income measures are crucial for most social science analyses of cross-national public opinion survey data. However, income questions in many cross-national surveys suffer from comparability and interpretability limitations that have not been adequately addressed by the existing literature. In this article, we examine the income measure in one major survey, the World Values Survey (WVS), arguing that a variety of problems arise when drawing inferences—descriptive or causal, individual or aggregate—using the standard ten-category measure. We then propose and implement a number of corrections to these potential biases and present a series of diagnostics that confirm the importance of our proposed corrections. We conclude by documenting some of the same challenges in the income measures used in other cross-national surveys. The accompanying data set can be merged with the WVS to make better use of the income measure.
This study explored qualitatively how residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities feel about and adapt to the care they receive. We interviewed and observed a purposeful selection of elderly residents in seven facilities purporting to provide person-centred care. Interpretative descriptions from 43 personal interviews with 23 participants answered the question: How do residents perceive the care rendered in LTC facilities purporting to offer person-centred care? Three themes emerged: (1) the caring environment; (2) preservation of dignity; and (3) maintenance of personal autonomy. Participants were sympathetic to the nursing staff’s workload, but felt distant from the staff. Participants gave examples of poor care and lack of empathy, human indignities, and violations of personal autonomy caused by institutional policies they felt inhibited their ability to receive care based on their preferences. Overall, they challenged the claims of person-centred care, but adapted to cope with an environment that threatened their dignity and autonomy.
The present study aimed to identify themes emerging from an inclusive therapeutic recreational camp experience for children with disabilities who attended a 10-day summer camp. Concept mapping was used to analyse the experience of 42 participants. Results emerged with seven themes: Personal Growth; Nurturing Relationships; Non-judgmental Environment and Attitude; Traditional/Classic Camp Fun; Beneficial and Unique Opportunities; Learning/Thinking with Structures and Rules; and Independence and Recognition. Results suggested that children with disabilities experienced positive personal growth and learned new skills from an integrated, therapeutic camp. These children benefited from the social and psychological aspects of the camp experience, as well as the learned skillset and behaviours. Clinical implications and future research directions are also discussed.
In Canada and the USA, ice hockey is a cause of traumatic brain injury. Post-concussive symptoms are the most important feature of the diagnosis of concussion in sports and it is recommended that athletes not return to play while still symptomatic. Lack of knowledge of concussions could therefore be one of the main detriments to concussion prevention in hockey. The purpose of this research is to describe what minor league hockey players, coaches, parents and trainers know about concussion and its management.
A questionnaire to assess concussion knowledge and return to play guidelines was developed and administered to players at different competitive levels (n = 267), coaches, trainers and parents (total adults n = 142) from the Greater Toronto Area.
Although a majority of adults and players could identify mechanisms responsible for concussion, about one-quarter of adults and about a quarter to a half of children could not recall any symptoms or recalled only one symptom of a concussion. A significant number of players and some adults did not know what a concussion was or how it occurred. Almost half of the players and a fifth of the adults incorrectly stated that concussion was treated with medication or physical therapy. Nearly one quarter of all players did not know if an athlete experiencing symptoms of concussion should continue playing.
This study demonstrated that a significant number of people held misconceptions about concussion in hockey which could lead to serious health consequences and creates a need for better preventive and educational strategies.
Objectives: The mode of contact and response levels of authors who had been asked to provide missing or incomplete data for a systematic review on diet and exercise interventions for weight loss was examined.
Methods: We contacted authors by electronic mail, letter, or both. Survival analyses were performed with the Kaplan–Meier method to determine differences in the proportion of responders over time among the different modes of contact and to determine whether response rates differed between authors from the United States and those from other countries. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the number of items requested and publication date influenced the likelihood of response.
Results: Two hundred forty-one (39.9 percent) studies had missing or incomplete data (e.g., sample size, age, caloric restriction, exercise amount, and so on). We were unable to locate ninety-five authors (39.4 percent). Of the remaining authors, forty-six authors (31.5 percent) responded to information requests. Time to respond differed by contact method (p<.05): e-mail (3 ± 3 days), letter (27 ± 30 days), and both (13 ±12 days). Response rates from U.S. authors did not differ from those of other countries.
Conclusions: Our study suggests poor success in the acquisition of essential information. Given considerable time and resources, weight loss studies require improved reporting standards to minimize the relatively unsuccessful attempt to contact authors for important and necessary information.
Objectives: Much has been written about the costs and cost-effectiveness of community care for people with learning disabilities resettled from long stay hospital care. However, comparatively little has been published about the cost of hospital services relating to the preparatory process before eventual resettlement and the disengagement of formal, sustained input from hospital staff. This study describes and costs the input provided by a hospital based multi-disciplinary team into the resettlement of adults with learning disabilities from long stay wards in Muckamore Abbey Hospital in Northern Ireland between 1996 and 1999 (n = 71).
Method: The study employs a retrospective survey design. Information about the nature and frequency of the input of each member of hospital multi-disciplinary team was collected for each former client. According to the level of professional resources expended during the resettlement process, each former client was then categorised into one of three categories. One case was then selected at random to represent each category. A summary of clinical information, a description of the resettlement process and an estimate of the cost of the process was provided for each case.
Results: Approximately 55% of people resettled in the community during the study period did so with a modest degree of input from hospital staff. For 18% resettlement proved to be a demanding and prolonged process, requiring intensive input from hospital staff. Financial costs of the resettlement process ranged from approximately stg£1,500 to stg£8,000, with an average of stg£3,400 for each person.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence of the input by hospital staff into the process of community resettlement of long stay hospital clients and the associated costs. These costs must be included in service budgets if quality care and appropriate service provision is to be maintained in resettlement practice.
Distributions of flying-fox (Pteropus alecto and P. scapulatus) were examined in relation to use of habitat in the essentially natural landscape of northern Australia. There were differences between the species in terms of the vegetation used for roosting and foraging, which were related to the reproductive cycle and seasonal variation in temperature, rainfall and the availability of preferred foods. Important habitats of P. alecto varied seasonally and included floodplain, mangrove, monsoon rainforest, Melaleuca open-forest, and Eucalyptus miniata/E. tetrodonta open-forest and woodland. The minimum scale at which conservation of P. alecto should be attempted is in the order of 5000 km2, based on seasonal patterns of habitat use. The size of this area will make conservation via traditional reserves difficult and conservation of important habitats outside reserves will be needed. Habitats protected for the benefit of P. alecto will also benefit P. scapulatus but because P. scapulatus is more mobile, displays greater yearly variation in distribution and is less well understood than P. alecto, appropriate conservation actions are less certain.
Objectives: To investigate the nature and pattern of teenage admissions (13-18yrs) to the 14 adult psychiatric units in Northern Ireland (NI) between 1989 and 1995.
Method: An analysis of routine hospital data, a review of case-notes at one hospital and in-depth interviews with young people previously admitted to adult inpatient care.
Results: Sixteen per cent of all under 25s admitted during the six-year period (443/2823) were under 18. There was an increasing trend over time in admissions and re-admissions to hospital. More than half of the teenagers were female and the most common diagnoses included emotional/conduct disorders, ‘stress’ and neurotic illnesses. Self-harm, substance abuse and exposure to violent/abusive environments or behaviour were the most commonly recorded factors preceding admission. All but one of the small number of people interviewed had attempted suicide prior to admission to hospital.
Conclusions: The increase in the use of adult inpatient care by young teenagers is of considerable concern but may be unavoidable in the absence of suitable alternatives especially for adolescents at risk of self-harm or suicide. Further research is required to determine the most appropriat e and effective service response for this vulnerable group . The findings have important implications for the future development of adolescent mental health services.
Objectives: Continuing deinstitutionalisation has led to growing concern about the availability and accessibility of services for people with learning disabilities transferring to community living. This study was undertaken in order to assess the configuration of services in terms of availability and uptake for people with learning disabilities who have left long-stay hospital care and to identify gaps or barriers to service provision within the unique integrated health and social services structure in Northern Ireland.
Method: The ‘keyworkers’ of 195 people – most of whom were aged 40-59 years with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual impairment – were interviewed by a researcher one year after discharge using the Service Interview.
Results: While a wide range of generic and specialist services was available, ‘packages’ of care consisted largely of public sector services (eg. GPs, chiropodists and social workers) and relied, to some extent, on the type of community accommodation. Although services appeared well co-ordinated in terms of care reviews and keyworker arrangements, 40% of people required more one-to-one support particularly in areas related to integration. However, services were perceived by care staff to be satisfactory
Conclusions: The development of community care has been slower in Northern Ireland than elsewhere and a large proportion of resources remain tied up in hospital care. However, existing community-based services appear to be addressing individual needs. Some former patients, though, may have been subject to transinstitutionalisation in the sense that their choice of accommodation was restricted mainly to large private sector homes and work and daytime opportunities were insufficient to facilitate integration. Service planners and providers need to give further consideration to the likely effects of different forms of rehabilitation, reprovision and resettlement and to be aware that the pattern of service provision is likely to be different for the more dependent cohorts of people who leave hospital in the future.
Long-stay patients with learning disabilities (n=214) were assessed in hospital and 12 and 24 months after discharge in order to examine the effects of relocation.
Each resident acted as his/her own control in a prospective repeated-measures design. Skills and behavioural problems were assessed by keyworkers. Self-perceived quality of life was obtained during interviews with researchers who also completed an environmental checklist of the residents' accommodation.
There was little or no change in peoples low pre-discharge skill levels. Certain aspects of problem behaviour improved after 12 months, although socially unacceptable behaviour increased slightly. People were less depressed (P ⩽ 0.01) 12 months after discharge (n=119) and were more satisfied (P ⩽ 0.05) with their new ‘homes’ (n=108). There were few changes in the pattern of activities or the social networks of people 12 months later. Little or no further change in outcomes was reported 24 months after discharge.
The implementation of the deinstitutionalisation policy in Northern Ireland has been limited by the predominance of residential and nursing homes and the lack of ‘ordinary’ accommodation. There is a need for purchasers and providers to give more attention to ways in which the principles of normalisation could be incorporated in the process of contracting and delivering services.
β-Casein, was enzymically modified by incubation with plasmin to yield γ-caseins and proteose peptones. Whole γ-, γ1-, γ2/γ3-caseins and whole proteose peptone (pp) were isolated from the hydrolysate mixture. The time dependence of surface tension at the air-water interface of solutions of β-casein and its plasmin derived fragments, at concentrations of 10−1 to 10−4% (w/v) protein, pH 7.0, was determined, at 25 °C, using a drop volume apparatus. The ranking of the proteins with respect to rate of reduction of surface tension, during the first rate determining step, at 10-2% (w/v) protein, was γ2/γ3 ≫ pp > whole γ- > γ1- > β-casein. The ranking of the proteins with respect to surface pressures attained after 40 min (π40) was concentration dependent. γ2/γ3-Caseins were found to be very surface active, decreasing surface tension rapidly and giving a high π40. γ1 Casein decreased surface activity somewhat faster than β-casein, but generally reached a lower π40. Whole γ-casein reflected the properties of both γ1 and γ2/γ3-caseins. Proteose peptone was found to decrease surface tension rapidly during the initial rate determining step; it gave a relatively high π40 at a bulk phase concentration of 10−3% (w/v) protein, but, it was the least surface active protein at 10−1 and 10−2% (w/v) protein.
Excimer laser induced ablative decomposition of polyimide and poly(methylmethacrylate) at high fluences (> 1 J/cm2) is discussed. It is shown that 0.4 μm sized features can be imaged in polyimide using ArF laser pulses. Preliminary results from experiments in which copper particles (<1 μm in size) have been deposited by exposing thin films of a copper formate and glycerol paste to KrF laser radiation are presented.
Room-temperature, optically-induced oxidation of the gallium arsenide surface has been studied with laser radiation of different wavelengths. It was found that deep-ultraviolet light is much more effective in enhancing oxidation than near-ultraviolet or visible light. The growth rate of the oxide was also found to be drastically increased by the presence of chemisorbed water molecules on the surface.