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The Main Karoo Basin of South Africa contains a near-continuous sequence of continental deposition spanning ~80 Myr from the mid-Permian to the Early Jurassic. The terrestrial vertebrates of this sequence provide a high-resolution stratigraphic record of regional origination and extinction, especially for the mid–late Permian. Until now, data have only been surveyed at coarse stratigraphic resolution using methods that are biased by nonuniform sampling rates, limiting our understanding of the dynamics of diversification through this important time period. Here, we apply robust methods (gap-filler and modified gap-filler rates) for the inference of patterns of species richness, origination rates, and extinction rates to a subset of 1321 reliably-identified fossil occurrences resolved to approximately 50 m stratigraphic intervals. This data set provides an approximate time resolution of 0.3–0.6 Myr and shows that extinction rates increased considerably in the upper 100 m of the mid-Permian Abrahamskraal Formation, corresponding to the latest part of the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (AZ). Origination rates were only weakly elevated in the same interval and were not sufficient to compensate for these extinctions. Subsampled species richness estimates for the lower part of the overlying Teekloof Formation (corresponding to the Pristerognathus and Tropidostoma AZs) are low, showing that species richness remained low for at least 1.5–3 million years after the main extinction pulse. A high unevenness of the taxon abundance–frequency distribution, which is classically associated with trophically unstable postextinction faunas, in fact developed shortly before the acme of elevated extinction rates due to the appearance and proliferation of the dicynodont Diictodon. Our findings provide strong support for a Capitanian (“end-Guadalupian”) extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates and suggest that further high-resolution quantitative studies may help resolve the lack of consensus among paleobiologists regarding this event.
This article presents an analysis of statements from Indigenous students in an Australian university that describe how they use supplementary tutors. The analysis provides some evidence that students use tutors for much more than the prescribed remedial purpose to assist with gaps in assumed academic knowledge and skills to prevent subject failures. Students also use tutors to access hidden knowledge and develop capabilities that assist their progress from dependence on assistance to independence in learning. Our analysis has implications for the conceptualisation and management of supplementary tutoring for Indigenous students.
The current change agenda to improve the persistently lower rates of access, participation and outcomes of Indigenous Australians in higher education is a broad one that attempts to address the complex range of contributing factors. A proposition in this paper is that the broad and longer-term focus runs the risk of distracting from the detailed considerations needed to improve support provisions for enrolled students in the immediate term. To bring more attention to this area of indicated change, we revisit ‘the gaps’ that exist between the performance of Indigenous and all other domestic students and the role that student support services have to play in improving retention and completion rates of enrolled Indigenous students. We outline some principles that can guide strategies for change in Indigenous undergraduate student support practices in Australian universities to respond to individual student needs in more effective and timely ways. These are illustrated using examples from the redevelopment of services provided by an Indigenous Education centre in a Go8 university, along with data gathered from our ARC study into Indigenous academic persistence in formal learning across three Australian universities.
The aims of this study were to investigate risk factors for the development of postoperative chylothorax following paediatric congenital heart surgery and to investigate the impact of a management guideline on management strategies and patient outcome.
All patients with chylothorax following cardiac surgery at the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, over a 48-month period beginning in January 2008 were identified. A control group, matched for age, date of surgery, and sex, was identified. To investigate potential risk factors, univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed with paired analysis. To examine the effect of a standardised management protocol, data before and after the implementation of the guideline were compared.
In total, 121 cases of chylothorax were identified, with 121 controls, matched for age at surgery, date of surgery, and sex. The incidence of chylothorax was 5.23%. Increasing surgical complexity (univariable OR 0.17 for the least complex versus the most complex group, p=0.02), closed-heart surgeries (OR 0.07 for open versus closed, p<0.001), and redo chest incisions (OR 10.0 for redo versus virgin, p<0.001) were significantly associated with chylothorax. The standardised management protocol had no significant impact on either drainage duration or management strategy.
We have replicated the previously reported association between surgical complexity and chylothorax risk, and have shown, for the first time, that redo chest openings are also associated with a significantly increased risk. The implementation of a standardised management protocol in our institution did not result in a significant change in either chylothorax drainage duration or management strategy.
Lombardy has been the centre of northern Italy not only geographically but also, for long periods in its history, politically and economically. It was always the heart of the Italian kingdom, originally named the regnum Langobardorum. Its political centre and capital was initially Pavia, but the nearby metropolis of Milan and its archbishops became increasingly important, as demonstrated in the coronation of the kings of Italy in the venerable Milanese abbey church of Sant'Ambrogio. The growing importance of Milan coincided with the weakening of the centralised royal administration in the region and the crystallisation of communal structures and institutions during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Tension between Milan and Pavia alongside the ascent of the former determined the political framework of Lombardy for centuries, while the rise of other important cities in the region such as Bergamo, Brescia, Como, Cremona, Lodi and Mantua completed the picture. In the Middle Ages, the geographical concept of Longobardia or Lombardia extended beyond the confines of the modern region to comprehend such cities as Novara, Vercelli and Tortona in the Piedmont and Piacenza and Parma in Emilia. Contemporaries even described places as far away as Asti, Modena and Reggio as Lombard. Together with modern Lombardy, they formed a large but only vaguely defined region referred to here as ‘greater Lombardy’.
The traditional mints of Pavia and Milan also determined the pattern of the currency in the region. Pavia and its coinage were more influential in the west, reaching far into Liguria and the Piedmont, while Milan was more important in central and eastern areas. Milan's dominance over the other Lombard mints began to extend westwards in the thirteenth century,but it was only with the formation of the Milan-centred Visconti state in the fourteenth century that the metropolis gained undisputed supremacy. The development of the coinage in Lombardy thus mirrored political circumstances. From the 1420s, however, the expansion of Venice on to the so-called Terraferma, the mainland beyond the Venetian lagoons, stretched into Lombardy with the conquest of Brescia, Bergamo and Lodi.
The difficulties inherent in selecting the most suitable forms for personal and place names in a reference work of this sort are discussed in MEC 1, xxi; MEC 14, xix–xx; and most recently in MEC 6, xxvi–xxxi. In this volume, the approach differs from the one adopted for MEC 1 and 14 in that English is used for personal names only for kings, emperors and popes. For the most part, other individuals are referred to by the ‘national’ forms of their names, which has become more common in the literature in English over the past few decades. Most rulers in northern Italy during the period under consideration are thus identified by the modern Italian forms of their names, but there are some notable exceptions. Foreign rulers who exercised authority over parts of northern Italy at one time or another are identified either by the national forms of their names or, in the case of foreign kings or emperors, by the English equivalents. The Angevin kings of Naples who governed parts of the Piedmont in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and the kings of France who sometimes ruled over Asti, Genoa and Milan are thus identified by the English forms of their names. In some cases, however, it is more appropriate to identify local rulers in northern Italy by their German names. The early patriarchs of Aquileia and the counts of Gorizia and Tyrol were Germanic and ruled over parts of northern Italy where Germanic peoples probably made up significant proportions of the population. In Italy's South Tyrol, even today, some three-quarters of the inhabitants speak German as their first language.
For place names, common English forms are used whenever they exist – such as Genoa rather than Genova, Milan rather than Milano, Venice rather than Venezia and so on – but conventional modern forms are otherwise used. This volume therefore uses the modern Cortemilia instead of the older form Cortemiglia, which is perhaps more familiar in the numismatic literature, and Masserano instead of the now antiquated Messerano. In discussing the coinage of the counts of Tyrol, both German and Italian forms are often given for the places covered, first the German and then the Italian in brackets since German was and still is the predominant language in the region.