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Relative to other species, human females invest considerable effort in attracting and retaining mates. Stroll the aisles of any bookstore and you may come across titles such as “Get the guy: Learn secrets of the male mind to find the man you want and the love you deserve” (Hussey, 2014), and “Texts so good he can't ignore: Sassy texting secrets for attracting high-quality men” (Bryans, 2018). A desire to attract and retain mates underlies diverse facets of women’s psychology and behavior, including displaying or enhancing aspects of one’s personality and physical appearance. Not surprisingly, these efforts correspond with men’s mate preferences. Human males are unique in their relative choosiness surrounding their mates, especially within the context of long-term pair-bonding. Look further in that bookstore aisle and you might come across a title such as “The man's handbook for choosing the right woman” (Daniels, 2009). In this chapter, we examine the theoretical rationale underlying female intersexual selection. We begin with a discussion of the theory underlying human mate choice, highlighting why men’s choosiness has been selected for, and why this compels women to exert effort toward attracting men. We then discuss specific characteristics of men’s short-term and long-term mate choice, and the multitude of tactics women utilize to better embody those traits. We describe preliminary evidence surrounding how intersexual selection may have shaped some phenotypic traits in women as costly signals of underlying fertility or immunocompetence. Finally, we discuss both individual and contextual differences among women in their mating effort and provide suggestions for future research directions aimed at further understanding how intersexual selection has shaped women’s mating psychology.
There is definitive evidence for effectiveness of thrombectomy for acute stroke with large vessel occlusion (LVO). A clinical tool to identify patients with LVO is therefore required for effective triage and prehospital decision making. We developed the FAST VAN tool, which follows from the Heart and Stroke Foundation FAST stroke screen, with the addition of cortical features of vision, aphasia, and neglect, to differentiate from lacunar syndromes.
Consecutive acute stroke alerts initiated by emergency medical services (EMS) were prospectively analyzed from April 2017 to Jan 2021. FAST VAN signs were recorded by first responders who had received online education about the tool. These findings were compared to the presence or absence of LVO on CT angiography. Analysis was also performed by appropriateness for comprehensive stroke centers (CSC) transfer if no LVO was present. EMS providers were surveyed regarding ease of use in terms of learning the tool and using in real-world practice.
Data from 1080 consecutive acute strokes included 440 patients considered to have VAN signs by EMS. Fifty-four percent of VAN-positive patients showed LVO on CTA. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 86%, 75%, and 77%, respectively. In 204 false-positive cases, 143 (70%) were considered appropriate for evaluation at the CSC. EMS providers reported high satisfaction with learning and using the tool.
The FAST VAN tool for identification of LVO meets desired characteristics of an effective screening tool in ease of use, efficiency, and accuracy. Aphasia remains the most challenging cortical feature to identify accurately.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: As the number of older adults (â‰¥65 years) with T1D grows, there are limited data to guide care. In a six-month trial, CGM reduced hypoglycemia in older adults, yet there are challenges for widespread uptake. Our objective is to characterize older adults experiences with using CGM and define suboptimal responses signaling a need for resources or support. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study will engage key stakeholders (i.e., older adults with T1D, caregivers [recruited as patient-caregiver dyads], and providers [endocrinologists, geriatricians, diabetes educators]) for a Group Model Building (GMB). GMB is a participatory approach to system dynamics in which participants share perceptions and experiences with a problem and collaboratively explore the system structure that shapes those trends. A series of 8 GMB workshops will be held with 3-8 participants. The final study n will be determined by thematic saturation. Workshops comprise 1) a questionnaire, 2) a GMB session, and 3) a focus group discussion. GMB will follow a replicable process to generate a model of the complex web of causal determinants affecting CGM-related experiences, including optimal and suboptimal CGM responses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To date, the study has enrolled 33 participants, including 28 older adults living with T1D and 5 caregivers (mean age = 74 years, range 67-83 years). Twenty-four patient participants will be active CGM users and 4 will be CGM non-users. The study will report on patient data capture from the questionnaire and EMR, including demographics, experiences, familiarity, and confidence surrounding CGM use; diabetes duration; insulin pump use; history of severe hypoglycemia. Analysis of aggregated data will generate causal loop diagrams that integrate pertinent theoretical frameworks, lived experiences, and CGM outcomes. Maps will be used to identify a set of suboptimal CGM responses (i.e., key outcome trajectories) that signal a need for action, with a diagram of factors that interact to produce each response. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Delivering CGM to older adults with T1D demands new approaches. This study will yield critical evidence to tailor support and resources for effective CGM use in older adults. Findings may be translated into suite of pragmatic interventions to bolster CGM use and matched to individual patients expected to benefit using a precision medicine framework.
Research among non-industrial societies suggests that body kinematics adopted during running vary between groups according to the cultural importance of running. Among groups in which running is common and an important part of cultural identity, runners tend to adopt what exercise scientists and coaches consider to be good technique for avoiding injury and maximising performance. In contrast, among groups in which running is not particularly culturally important, people tend to adopt suboptimal technique. This paper begins by describing key elements of good running technique, including landing with a forefoot or midfoot strike pattern and leg oriented roughly vertically. Next, we review evidence from non-industrial societies that cultural attitudes about running associate with variation in running techniques. Then, we present new data from Tsimane forager–horticulturalists in Bolivia. Our findings suggest that running is neither a common activity among the Tsimane nor is it considered an important part of cultural identity. We also demonstrate that when Tsimane do run, they tend to use suboptimal technique, specifically landing with a rearfoot strike pattern and leg protracted ahead of the knee (called overstriding). Finally, we discuss processes by which culture might influence variation in running techniques among non-industrial societies, including self-optimisation and social learning.
Lithium is viewed as the first-line long-term treatment for prevention of relapse in people with bipolar disorder.
This study examined factors associated with the likelihood of maintaining serum lithium levels within the recommended range and explored whether the monitoring interval could be extended in some cases.
We included 46 555 lithium rest requests in 3371 individuals over 7 years from three UK centres. Using lithium results in four categories (<0.4 mmol/L; 0.40–0.79 mmol/L; 0.80–0.99 mmol/L; ≥1.0 mmol/L), we determined the proportion of instances where lithium results remained stable or switched category on subsequent testing, considering the effects of age, duration of lithium therapy and testing history.
For tests within the recommended range (0.40–0.99 mmol/L categories), 84.5% of subsequent tests remained within this range. Overall, 3 monthly testing was associated with 90% of lithium results remaining within range, compared with 85% at 6 monthly intervals. In cases where the lithium level in the previous 12 months was on target (0.40–0.79 mmol/L; British National Formulary/National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria), 90% remained within the target range at 6 months. Neither age nor duration of lithium therapy had any significant effect on lithium level stability. Levels within the 0.80–0.99 mmol/L category were linked to a higher probability of moving to the ≥1.0 mmol/L category (10%) compared with those in the 0.4–0.79 mmol/L group (2%), irrespective of testing frequency.
We propose that for those who achieve 12 months of lithium tests within the 0.40–0.79 mmol/L range, the interval between tests could increase to 6 months, irrespective of age. Where lithium levels are 0.80–0.99 mmol/L, the test interval should remain at 3 months. This could reduce lithium test numbers by 15% and costs by ~$0.4 m p.a.
Seed retention, and ultimately seed shatter, are extremely important for the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) and are likely influenced by various agroecological and environmental factors. Field studies investigated seed-shattering phenology of 22 weed species across three soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-producing regions in the United States. We further evaluated the potential drivers of seed shatter in terms of weather conditions, growing degree days, and plant biomass. Based on the results, weather conditions had no consistent impact on weed seed shatter. However, there was a positive correlation between individual weed plant biomass and delayed weed seed–shattering rates during harvest. This work demonstrates that HWSC can potentially reduce weed seedbank inputs of plants that have escaped early-season management practices and retained seed through harvest. However, smaller individuals of plants within the same population that shatter seed before harvest pose a risk of escaping early-season management and HWSC.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted lives and livelihoods, and people already experiencing mental ill health may have been especially vulnerable.
Quantify mental health inequalities in disruptions to healthcare, economic activity and housing.
We examined data from 59 482 participants in 12 UK longitudinal studies with data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within each study, we estimated the association between psychological distress assessed pre-pandemic and disruptions since the start of the pandemic to healthcare (medication access, procedures or appointments), economic activity (employment, income or working hours) and housing (change of address or household composition). Estimates were pooled across studies.
Across the analysed data-sets, 28% to 77% of participants experienced at least one disruption, with 2.3–33.2% experiencing disruptions in two or more domains. We found 1 s.d. higher pre-pandemic psychological distress was associated with (a) increased odds of any healthcare disruptions (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.20–1.40), with fully adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.41) for disruption to procedures to 1.33 (95% CI 1.20–1.49) for disruptions to prescriptions or medication access; (b) loss of employment (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.21) and income (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 –1.19), and reductions in working hours/furlough (odds ratio 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09) and (c) increased likelihood of experiencing a disruption in at least two domains (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18–1.32) or in one domain (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.16), relative to no disruption. There were no associations with housing disruptions (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.03).
People experiencing psychological distress pre-pandemic were more likely to experience healthcare and economic disruptions, and clusters of disruptions across multiple domains during the pandemic. Failing to address these disruptions risks further widening mental health inequalities.
Northern Welsh is one of two main dialect families of Welsh (cym, ISO 693-3) spoken in Wales, the other being Southern Welsh. The Welsh counties of Anglesey, Gwynedd, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, and Wrexham in the United Kingdom are considered to comprise the unofficial region of North Wales shown in Figure 1 (as designated by StatsWales 2018). Within this area there are further dialectal differences that are beyond the scope of this analysis, which considers the general features of Northern Welsh as a whole. However, see Thomas & Thomas (1989) for an overview of differences between eastern and western varieties of Northern Welsh.
Americium is a man-made metal produced in very small quantities in nuclear reactors. Americium-241 is one of the radioactive isotopes of americium and has commercial applications, including use in smoke detectors. This is a case report of an occupational inhalation of americium-241, treated with both effective external decontamination and the use of diethylenetriamine pentaacetate to promote decorporation. This experience is significant because of the potential for americium or similar radionuclides to be used in “dirty” bombs or other radiological dispersion devices to cause large-scale radioactive contamination.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveying has potential to become a powerful tool for sustainable parasite control. As trematode parasites require an intermediate snail host that is often aquatic or amphibious to fulfil their lifecycle, water-based eDNA analyses can be used to screen habitats for the presence of snail hosts and identify trematode infection risk areas. The aim of this study was to identify climatic and environmental factors associated with the detection of Galba truncatula eDNA. Fourteen potential G. truncatula habitats on two farms were surveyed over a 9-month period, with eDNA detected using a filter capture, extraction and PCR protocol with data analysed using a generalized estimation equation. The probability of detecting G. truncatula eDNA increased in habitats where snails were visually detected, as temperature increased, and as water pH decreased (P < 0.05). Rainfall was positively associated with eDNA detection in watercourse habitats on farm A, but negatively associated with eDNA detection in watercourse habitats on farm B (P < 0.001), which may be explained by differences in watercourse gradient. This study is the first to identify factors associated with trematode intermediate snail host eDNA detection. These factors should be considered in standardized protocols to evaluate the results of future eDNA surveys.
To describe and compare psychoactive substance misuse help-seeking among transgender (trans) and cisgender (cis) participants from a large multi-national cross-sectional survey.
Trans people experience stressors related to their minority status which have been associated with increased rates of psychoactive substance use and related harm. Despite this, there is a paucity of evidence relating to the treatment needs of trans people who use psychoactive substances, beyond a small body of literature describing a culture of transphobic hostility in general substance misuse services. This paper aims to describe and compare psychoactive substance misuse help-seeking among trans and cis participants from a large multi-national cross-sectional survey.
Over 180,000 participants, recruited from the world's largest annual survey of drug use - the Global Drug Survey (GDS) - during 2018 and 2019, reported use of a range of psychoactive substances in the preceding 12 months. Five gender groups (118,157 cis men, 64,319 cis women, 369 trans men, 353 trans women and 1,857 non-binary people) were compared, using Chi-square and z-tests with Bonferroni correction, on items relating to the desire to use less psychoactive substances and the need to seek help to achieve this. Respondents from GDS 2018 were also assessed for substance dependence. Binary logistic regression was used to compare gender groups on self-reported substance dependence to frame the help-seeking analyses.
Trans respondents (n = 1,710) to GDS 2018 were significantly more likely than cis respondents to report use of illicit substances (OR = 1.66-2.93) and dependence on cannabis (OR = 2.39), alcohol (OR = 3.28) and novel psychoactive substances (OR = 4.60). In the combined GDS 2018 and 2019 dataset, there were no significant differences between trans (n = 2,579) and cis (n = 182,476) participants on the desire to reduce substance use. However, among those who did report wanting to use less, non-binary people and trans women were most likely to want help to achieve this.
Trans respondents reported a greater need for help with reducing substance use than cis respondents. Given the deficit of specialist services for psychoactive substance users who are trans, there is a need for a more thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators to their engagement in general substance misuse services. In the interim, substance misuse service providers require education about gender minority status to help meet the needs of trans clients.
While donor-conceived children have similar mental health outcomes compared to spontaneously conceived children, there is an inconsistency between studies investigating mental health outcomes of donor-conceived people in adulthood. This study is an online health survey that was completed by 272 donor sperm-conceived adults and 877 spontaneously conceived adults from around the world. Donor sperm-conceived adults had increased diagnoses of attention deficit disorder (P = 0.004), and autism (P = 0.044) in comparison to those conceived spontaneously. Donor sperm-conceived adults self-reported increased incidences of seeing a mental health professional (P < 0.001), identity formation problems (P < 0.001), learning difficulties (P < 0.001), panic attacks (P = 0.038), recurrent nightmares (sperm P = 0.038), and alcohol/drug dependency (P = 0.037). DASS-21 analysis revealed that donor sperm-conceived adults were also more stressed than those conceived spontaneously (P = 0.013). Both donor sperm and spontaneously conceived cohorts were matched for sex, age, height, alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, own fertility, and maternal smoking. The increase in adverse mental health outcomes is consistent with some studies of donor-conceived adult mental health outcomes. These results are also consistent with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) phenomenon that has linked adverse perinatal outcomes, which have been observed in donor-conceived neonates, to increased risk of chronic disease, including mental health. Further work is required to reconcile our observations in adults to contrary observations reported in donor-conceived children.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Melanoma leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a devastating subtype of central nervous system (CNS) metastatic disease that is associated with limited treatment options and an extremely poor prognosis, thus requiring the development of preclinical models of LMD for therapeutic development. OBJECTIVES/GOALS:
1. Develop an immunocompetent murine model of melanoma LMD with tumors bearing genetic mutations commonly found in patients, specifically BRAF(V600E)/PTEN-/-
2. Assess the safety of intrathecal (IT) immunotherapy, specifically anti-PD1 antibody (aPD1)
3. Evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of IT aPD1 checkpoint blockade in murine melanoma LMD METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To develop BRAF(V600E)/PTEN-/- LMD models, we acquired BP, D4M, and D4M-UV2 (irradiated) murine melanoma cell lines and luciferase-tagged them. 1.5x10^4 cells were suspended in 10 uL serum-free media and injected into the cisterna magna of female C57BL/6 mice. Brain and spinal cord were harvested for histologic assessment once mice were moribund. To assess safety of IT aPD1, we injected IT control IgG or IT aPD1 (13 ug, 26 ug, 39 ug) and monitored weights or harvested at days 7 or 14 for IHC staining of inflammation markers. To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of IT aPD1, BP cells were directly injected as above. After 3 days, mice underwent imaging to confirm tumor uptake and randomization to receive 13 ug IT control IgG or aPD1 once + 200 ug systemic (Sys) control IgG or aPD1 (days 0, 3, and 5), and then monitored for survival. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: For LMD development, all mice survived cisternal injection of BP, D4M, and D4M-UV2 cells and median survival was 17, 19, and 30 days, respectively. Presence of leptomeningeal deposits was confirmed for all tumor-bearing mice by IHC for MART1. For safety of IT aPD1, all mice survived the procedure and no mice displayed morbidity or >10% weight loss over 14 days of observation. IHC assessment of brain and spinal cord samples from mice treated with 13 ug aPD1 revealed focal ischemia related to injection site and no other signs of neurological damage or inflammation. IT aPD1 treatment of mice with BP leptomeningeal tumors demonstrated no significant survival advantage, although both IT aPD1 +/- Sys aPD1 had mice live up to days 29 and 26, respectively, compared to both IT control IgG +/- Sys aPD1, for which all mice died by day 22. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We demonstrate that cisternal injection of murine BRAF(V600E)/PTEN-/- melanoma cell lines yield LMD with reproducible survival and that treatment with IT aPD1 in this model is feasible and safe. Together these findings establish a new model to facilitate the development of more effective immunotherapy strategies for melanoma patients with LMD.
What is faith? Is it just a matter of propositions, claims, such as “God is love”? Or is it more a matter of commitment, perhaps not fully articulated, of having a background awareness of God and his love? And what is the position of faith for the Christian? Is faith alone enough, or does one need to supplement it with reasoned argument and possibly appeal to outside evidence? The New Atheists argue that Christianity fails because it rests on faith, and, today, we see that reason and evidence, most notably science and its confirmed theories, negate faith claims. Faith therefore is seen as delusional, a function of the fact that people are scared of death and the apparent meaninglessness of their lives. Ruse and Davies raise and argue these questions, coming to very different conclusions.
The authors run through the major arguments for the existence of God: Anselm’s ontological argument (and also Descartes’s version), arguing that the very notion of God a priori proves hs existence; Aquinas’s cosmological (or causal) argument, that God is needed to stop an infinite regression of causes from the present to the past; and the teleological argument or the argument from design, that the design-like natural objects of this world demand a designer. Then they raise the standard objections: Gaunilo’s criticism that the ontological argument proves the existence of perfect islands, which is ridiculous, and Kant’s objection that you cannot infer matters of fact by a priori reasoning; Dawkins’s criticism that the cosmological argument raises the unanswered question of what causes God; and Hume’s criticism of the design argument, and Darwin’s subsequent demonstration that natural selection can explain final causes naturalistically, and so there is no need to invoke a Designer God.
Why do we disagree? Ultimately, it comes down to faith. The Christianity Ruse is rejecting is the Christianity of Kierkegaard. Faith demands a leap into the absurd. Reason and evidence backing up the faith commitment would render it inauthentic. Believe without seeing the scars! Hence, for Ruse, given that he thinks this the only authentic Christianity, all attempts to make sense of Christianity are pointless. You are trying to square the circle. Davies is a committed Christian, a Roman Catholic philosopher, and theologian. For him, faith and reason do not clash; they are complementary. Hence, for Davies it is legitimate – demanded – that he bring reason to bear on his faith beliefs, for instance, concerning the Trinity and the Incarnation. In the end, although there is sympathy for the beliefs of the other and much respect, Michael Ruse and Brian Davies are on different tracks, and they do not run in parallel.
The tensions between our two authors start to rise. Ruse dismisses natural theology and proofs for the existence of God. Faith or nothing, and that means nothing because faith does not work. Davies responds by pointing out that there is biblical evidence for natural theology, and turns to Aquinas for guidance. The saint agrees that faith trumps reason and is enough alone for Christian belief, but argues also that reason, natural theology, has its place. It can supplement and back up the commitments through faith. There is therefore no conflict between reason and faith. Both have their role. In any case, argues Davies, scientists make faith commitments, having to start somewhere without prior proof, so in the end science is in the same business as religion. Ruse responds that the commitments of science and the commitments of religion are entirely different. The Christian cannot end the case by using this line of argument.