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Transient, steady and oscillatory flows in a
curved pipe are investigated both numerically and experimentally to understand secondary flow vortex formation and interactions. The results of numerical simulations and particle image velocimetry experiments are highly correlated, with a low error. To enable simulations in a smaller domain with shorter inlet section, an analytical solution for the unsteady Navier–Stokes equation is obtained with non-zero initial conditions to provide physical velocity profiles for the simulations. The vorticity transport equation is studied and its terms are balanced to find the mechanism of vorticity transfer to structures in the curved pipe. Several vortices are identified via various vortex identification (ID) methods and their results are compared. Isosurfaces of the
vortex ID are used to explain the temporal and spatial evolution of vortices in the curved pipe. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the velocity gradient tensor are calculated for the swirling strength vortex ID method, which also determines vortex axis orientation. The classical Lyne vortex in oscillatory flow with an inviscid core is also revisited and its results are compared with the transient and steady flows. These in-depth analyses provide a better understanding and characterization of vortical structures in the curved pipe flow. Our findings show that, although there are some visual similarities between cross-sectional views of steady/transient flows and oscillatory flows, the structure herein designated as Lyne-type vortex detected in the cross-sections (under steady, transient and pulsatile flows) is not the same as the classical Lyne vortex pair (in oscillatory flows).
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of this study is to use the baboon as a novel animal model for breath research and to identify and characterize baboon breath metabolites that reflect cardiometabolic function to inform us in the development of a noninvasive, cost-effective, and repeatable point-of-care diagnostic breath test. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Blood and urine was collected from control and IUGR at the approximate age of 3.5 years. Both groups were then placed on a high fat, high sugar, high salt diet for 7 weeks, after which blood, urine, and breath were collected. The breath samples were then subjected to comprehensive, 2-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Using ChromaTOF software, breath VOCs were identified with at least an 80% spectral match against the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) chemical reference library. The raw data were then statistically analyzed using MetaboAnalyst. We then interrogated multiple online databases to characterize and identify the role of VOCs that were present in both control and IUGR groups. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary analyses of the breath VOCs indicate differences in expression between sexes and in control Versus IUGR groups. These results indicate unique “breath signatures.” Further analysis of the breath VOCs reveals the presence of metabolites that are involved in β-oxidation and oxidative stress pathways. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This breath study, a first of its kind, will develop the baboon as a superior animal model for breath biomarker research. Our observed unique “breath signatures” indicate changes in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress pathways, which we hypothesize are the early metabolic changes at the cellular level that are not yet reflected in clinical lab measures. Future directions include analyzing breath VOCs that did not meet 80% spectral match, validation using SPME technology and commercial standards, and initiating a human pilot study in clinically obese, at-risk children in collaboration with physicians at the Children’s Hospital of San Antonio to develop a noninvasive, cost-effective, rapid, and repeatable point-of-care diagnostic breath test.
Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly recognized as a major cause of malaria in Southeast Asia. Anopheles leucosphyrous group mosquitoes transmit the parasite and natural hosts include long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Despite early laboratory experiments demonstrating successful passage of infection between humans, the true role that humans play in P. knowlesi epidemiology remains unclear. The threat posed by its introduction into immunologically naïve populations is unknown despite being a public health priority for this region. A two-host species mathematical model was constructed to analyse this threat. Global sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo methods highlighted the biological processes of greatest influence to transmission. These included parameters known to be influential in classic mosquito-borne disease models (e.g. vector longevity); however, interesting ecological components that are specific to this system were also highlighted: while local vectors likely have intrinsic preferences for certain host species, how plastic these preferences are, and how this is shaped by local conditions, are key determinants of parasite transmission potential. Invasion analysis demonstrates that this behavioural plasticity can qualitatively impact the probability of an epidemic sparked by imported infection. Identifying key vector sub/species and studying their biting behaviours constitute important next steps before models can better assist in strategizing disease control.
Dr David Livingstone died on May 1st 1873. He was 60 years old and had spent much of the previous 30 years walking across large stretches of Southern Africa, exploring the terrain he hoped could provide new environments in which Europeans and Africans could cohabit on equal terms and bring prosperity to a part of the world he saw ravaged by the slave trade. Just days before he died, he wrote in his journal about the permanent stream of blood that he was emitting related to haemorrhoids and the acute intestinal pain that had left him incapable of walking. What actually killed Livingstone is unknown, yet the years spent exploring sub-Saharan Africa undoubtedly exposed him to a gamut of parasitic and other infectious diseases. Some of these we can be certain of. He wrote prolifically and described his encounters with malaria, relapsing fevers, parasitic helminths and more. His graphic writing allows us to explore his own encounters with tropical diseases and how European visitors to Africa considered them at this time. This paper outlines Livingstone's life and his contributions to understanding parasitic diseases.
Many physical factors, including radial and nonradial pulsation, rotation, radiation pressure, convection, magnetic fields, or dynamical instabilities may play important roles in the hydrodynamics of Luminous Blue Variables. We review the current status of hydrodynamic modeling of LBV envelopes, and describe results of our models using the one-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamics code of Ostlie and Cox. We find that the models pulsate in several simultaneous radial modes, driven by the helium and Fe ionization к effect. The pulsations have quasi-periods between 5 and 80 days, with radial velocity amplitudes of 50-200 km/sec, and may be identified with the LBV microvariations. In some cases, depending on luminosity-to-mass ratio and helium abundance, deep layers in the model can periodically exceed the Eddington luminosity limit. The key to exceeding LE is the inclusion of the time dependence of convection: Near the regions of opacity peaks produced by Fe and helium ionization, convection is turning on and off during each pulsation cycle. If convection cannot turn on rapidly enough to transport the required luminosity through the region, the Eddington limit is exceeded. If this region of the star is sufficiently adiabatic, an “outburst” may occur. In the hydrodynamic models, an outburst is indicated by the photospheric radial velocity suddenly becoming very large, and the photospheric radius increasing monotonically over several pulsation cycles. Such pulsation-triggered outbursts may be responsible for the driving of variable, nonspherical winds. If large and infrequent enough, these outbursts may be identified with the classic LBV eruptions accompanied by episodic mass loss.
Both radial and low degree and order g-mode nonradial pulsations are predicted for luminous blue variables that occur in the blue supergiant region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. It is found that the radial strange modes have very large growth rates due to helium ionization in models at surface effective temperatures between 10,000 and 20,000 K.
Fear of falling (FoF) is a common condition in older age. However, there is a paucity of research on its prevalence, impact and treatment in older people with dementia. People with dementia have an increased risk of falls which present a significant threat to their independence, as well as having a significant economic impact on health and social services. This review outlines the key issues in relation to FoF, current guidelines and assessment tools and their use for people with dementia. Further research needs to be completed in both addressing the specific assessment barriers that people with dementia may face regarding the use of current FoF tools, with further exploration surrounding the individual's experience of FoF and how this may be impacting upon their quality of life and functionality. Until a well-validated method has been developed, clinicians need to utilize available tools as guidelines, seek the assistance of proxies at all stages of the care journey, and use clinical judgement to assess FoF in patients with dementia.
Metamifop is an aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide under evaluation in the United States for annual grass control in cool-season turfgrasses. Insufficient information is available on the most effective metamifop application timings and mixtures for POST smooth crabgrass control. Field trials conducted in Blacksburg, VA, evaluated metamifop for smooth crabgrass control in existing stands of perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and tall fescue at three rates compared to fenoxaprop, metamifop applied twice at three application intervals, and metamifop in combination with the broadleaf herbicides carfentrazone, 2,4-D plus dicamba plus mecoprop (DDM), and mesotrione. Smooth crabgrass control was equivalent with metamifop at 400 g ai ha−1 and fenoxaprop at 195 g ai ha−1. Smooth crabgrass cover was 2% or less, 12 wk after initial treatment, when treated twice with metamifop (300 g ha−1) at a 3-, 6-, or 8-wk interval and significantly better than metamifop applied once. Smooth crabgrass cover was significantly greater at every assessment date in plots treated with metamifop plus DDM than all other metamifop plus broadleaf herbicide admixtures. Metamifop did not appear to significantly injure any turfgrass in these studies, but conclusions about metamifop safety to cool-season turfgrasses cannot be made from these studies due to nonreplication of turfgrass species. According to these data, metamifop is an effective herbicide for controlling smooth crabgrass in cool-season turfgrasses when applied once at 300 or 400 g ha−1 or twice at a 3-, 6-, or 8-wk interval. Although metamifop continues to control smooth crabgrass when added to some broadleaf herbicides, smooth crabgrass control was reduced when metamifop was combined with DDM.
Alligatorweed, waterhyacinth, and hydrilla are three nonnative aquatic species of concern in the Ross Barnett Reservoir near Jackson, MS. Point-intercept surveys were conducted on the reservoir from 2005 to 2010 to monitor native and nonnative species' distributions and assess herbicide treatment efficacy across the reservoir. Foliar applications of 2,4-D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and diquat were made during summer months for emergent and free-floating vegetation, whereas submersed applications of liquid copper and granular fluridone were applied in spring and late summer for subsurface hydrilla populations. American lotus is the native species that has been observed the most throughout the survey years, with occurrence frequencies averaging between 17 and 27%. Alligatorweed populations significantly decreased from 21% in 2005 to 4% in 2006; however, they consistently increased in the next 4 yr to 12% occurrence in 2010. Waterhyacinth occurrence has remained relatively constant over the study period, averaging below 10% occurrence. Hydrilla was discovered in the reservoir in late 2005 and has remained below 2% in frequency of occurrence since 2006. Suppression of these nonnative species has been attributed to rigorous monitoring and herbicide applications conducted on the reservoir since 2005. A logistic regression model indicated that as native species richness increased, the likelihood of a nonnative species occurring also increased.
This study examined how nursing home facility ownership and organizational characteristics relate to emergency department (ED) transfer rates. The sample included a retrospective cohort of nursing home residents in the Vancouver Coastal Health region (n = 13,140). Rates of ED transfers were compared between nursing home ownership types. Administrative data were further linked to survey-derived data of facility organizational characteristics for exploratory analysis. Crude ED transfer rates (transfers/100 resident years) were 69, 70, and 51, respectively, in for-profit, non-profit, and publicly owned facilities. Controlling for sex and age, public ownership was associated with lower ED transfer rates compared to for-profit and non-profit ownership. Results showed that higher total direct-care nursing hours per resident day, and presence of allied health staff – disproportionately present in publicly owned facilities – were associated with lower transfer rates. A number of other facility organizational characteristics – unrelated to ownership – were also associated with transfer rates.
Integrity is prized in public office and private life. To remark on a person's lack of integrity is to criticize the person's character in some way. To remark on a person's possession of integrity is to praise at least some aspect of their character. Thus integrity appears to be a virtue. But exactly what kind of virtue might it be? We speak of attributes such as professional, intellectual and artistic integrity. However, we also use the term “integrity” to describe a feature of general character, and philosophers have been especially concerned to understand this latter use of the term. What is it for a person to exhibit integrity throughout life? What is it to be a person of integrity? In this chapter we offer an answer to these questions. We arrive at our answer by way of contrast. An obvious candidate answer is that integrity is the virtue of achieving or maintaining an integrated self. We argue that this account is wrong, but wrong in a very revealing way. We develop an account of integrity – integrity as the virtue of successfully taking one's life seriously – on the basis of our criticism of the idea of integrity as self-integration, as well as our critical appraisal of other accounts of integrity offered in the philosophical literature.
INTEGRITY AS SELF-INTEGRATION
It is natural to turn to the etymology of the term “integrity” for clues as to the nature of the concept.
This chapter focuses on three entities namely disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), HELLP syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), which represents unique and critical threats to the well-being of mother and fetus during peripartum period. It is concerned with the etiology, clinical features, diagnostic methods and management of these entities. In non-bleeding patients with DIC, platelets and factor replacement should not be administered prophylactically or based on laboratory tests alone. The treatment of HELLP involves monitoring and responding to maternal signs and symptoms, particularly when pre-eclampsia is present, and includes fluid management and the use of antihypertensive agents and magnesium sulfate for seizure prophylaxis. Plasma exchange is the treatment of choice for TTP. The optimal treatment regimen for obstetric coagulation disorders continues to evolve, given the frequently dynamic clinical situation, the presence and health of the fetus, and a growing interest in conducting investigations during the peripartum period.
We have been carrying out a systematic survey of the star formation and ISM properties in the host galaxies of z∼6 quasars. Our 250 GHz observations, together with available data from the literature, yield a sample of 14 z∼6 quasars that are bright in millimeter dust continuum emission with estimated FIR luminosities of a few 1012 to 1013 L⊙. Most of these millimeter-detected z∼6 quasars have also been detected in molecular CO line emission, indicating molecular gas masses on order of 1010 M⊙. We have searched for [C II] 158 micron fine structure line emission toward four of the millimeter bright z∼6 quasars with ALMA and all of them have been detected. All these results suggest massive star formation at rates of about 600 to 2000 M⊙ yr−1 over the central few kpc region of these quasar host galaxies.