To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Historically and across societies people with disabilities have been stigmatized and excluded from social opportunities on a variety of culturally specific grounds. In this collection, the authors explore the impact that the philosophical framing of disability can have on public policy questions, in the clinic, in the courtroom, and elsewhere. They examine the implications of this understanding for legal and policy approaches to disability, strategies for allocating and accessing health care, the implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act, health care rights, and other legal tools designed to address discrimination. This volume should be read by anyone seeking a balanced view of disability and an understanding of the connection between the framing of disability and policies that have a real-world impact on individuals.
To evaluate the National Health Safety Network (NHSN) hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) standardized infection ratio (SIR) risk adjustment for general acute-care hospitals with large numbers of intensive care unit (ICU), oncology unit, and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Eight tertiary-care referral general hospitals in California.
We used FY 2016 data and the published 2015 rebaseline NHSN HO-CDI SIR. We compared facility-wide inpatient HO-CDI events and SIRs, with and without ICU data, oncology and/or HCT unit data, and ICU bed adjustment.
For these hospitals, the median unmodified HO-CDI SIR was 1.24 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.15–1.34); 7 hospitals qualified for the highest ICU bed adjustment; 1 hospital received the second highest ICU bed adjustment; and all had oncology-HCT units with no additional adjustment per the NHSN. Removal of ICU data and the ICU bed adjustment decreased HO-CDI events (median, −25%; IQR, −20% to −29%) but increased the SIR at all hospitals (median, 104%; IQR, 90%–105%). Removal of oncology-HCT unit data decreased HO-CDI events (median, −15%; IQR, −14% to −21%) and decreased the SIR at all hospitals (median, −8%; IQR, −4% to −11%).
For tertiary-care referral hospitals with specialized ICUs and a large number of ICU beds, the ICU bed adjustor functions as a global adjustment in the SIR calculation, accounting for the increased complexity of patients in ICUs and non-ICUs at these facilities. However, the SIR decrease with removal of oncology and HCT unit data, even with the ICU bed adjustment, suggests that an additional adjustment should be considered for oncology and HCT units within general hospitals, perhaps similar to what is done for ICU beds in the current SIR.
Integrating spiritual care into multidisciplinary care teams has seen both successful thoughtful collaboration and challenges, including feelings of competition and poor cross-disciplinary understanding. In Israel, where the profession is new, we aimed to examine how spiritual care is perceived by other healthcare professionals learning to integrate spiritual caregivers into their teams.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 19 professionals (seven physicians, six nurses, three social workers, two psychologists, and one medical secretary) working with spiritual caregivers in three Israeli hospitals, primarily in oncology/hematology. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis.
Respondents’ overall experience with adding a spiritual caregiver was strongly positive. Beneficial outcomes described included calmer patients and improved patient–staff relationships. Respondents identified reasons for a referral not limited to the end of life. Respondents distinguished between the role of the spiritual caregiver and those of other professions and, in response to case studies, differentiated when and how each professional should be involved.
Despite its relative newness in Israel, spiritual care is well received by a wide variety of professionals at those sites where it has been integrated. Steps to improve collaboration should include improving multidisciplinary communication to broaden the range of situations in which spiritual caregivers and other professionals work together to provide the best possible holistic care.
Modelling paleo-glacier networks in mountain ranges on the millennial timescales requires ice flow approximations. Hybrid models calculating ice flow by combining vertical shearing (shallow ice approximation) and longitudinal stretching (shallow shelf approximation) have been applied to model paleo-glacier networks on steep terrain, yet their validity has not yet been assessed quantitatively. Moreover, hybrid models consistently yield higher ice thicknesses than Last Glacial Maximum geomorphological reconstructions in the European Alps. Here, we compare results based on the hybrid Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) and the Stokes model Elmer/Ice on the Rhine Glacier, a catchment of the former European Alpine Icefield. For PISM, we also test two magnitudes of flux limitation in a scheme that reduces shearing velocities. We find that the flux limitation typically used in PISM yields significantly reduced shearing speeds and increases ice thicknesses by up to 500 m, partly explaining previous overestimations. However, reducing the ice flux limitation allows the hybrid model to minimize this mismatch and captures sliding speeds, ice thicknesses, ice extent and basal temperatures in close agreement with those obtained with the Stokes model.
Self-rated health is one of the most widely used measures in gerontology, but it has not been evaluated systematically in older adults with schizophrenia (OAS). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the utility of self-rated health in OAS by examining its influencing factors and contrasting these findings with a community comparison (CC) group.
We compared 249 community-dwelling persons aged 55 years and older having a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnosis of schizophrenia arising before age 45 years with a demographically similar group of 113 older adults in the general community. Using a modified version of Ocampo’s model of self-rated health, we identified 12 predictor variables within 5 dimensions.
There were no significant differences in self-health ratings between the OAS and the CC groups. Six of the 12 variables in the model significantly correlated with self-rated health in both groups. In linear regression analysis, three variables were significantly associated with self-rated health in both groups: Center for Epidemiological Studies−Depression score, number of physical disorders, and perception of self-health versus others. Self-rated health assessment was not associated with positive or negative symptoms or lack of awareness of mental illness.
There was a striking similarity in the factors influencing self-rated health in the two groups. The findings were consistent with results of previous gerontological studies that self-rated health reflects elements of psychiatric and physical well-being, as well as perceptions of their age peers. Our results support the use of self-rated health as a legitimate clinical and research measure in OAS.
Developing previous work on charismatic leadership by Boas Shamir and Ken, we investigate the contention that followers of charismatic leaders have an emotional connection with that leader in the form of a ‘sense of belonging’ and links to community. We, therefore, investigate whether there is any evidence of a sense of belonging when people describe those they judge to be charismatic. Using a mixed-methods aesthetic narrative approach, we are able to supply empirical support for the existence of such a relationship and to extend the findings of previous studies by incorporating the connection that the leader has with the community, in general, as an important factor in the leader–follower relationship.
Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are consistently reported in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar-I disorder (BD), as well as among individuals who have been exposed to childhood trauma. However, higher levels of inflammatory markers in these disorders are yet to be investigated with respect to levels of exposure to different types of childhood trauma.
Participants were 68 cases with a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ), 69 cases with a diagnosis of psychotic BD and 72 healthy controls (HC). Serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were quantified, and childhood trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.
The SZ group had significantly higher levels of IL-6, TNF-α and CRP when compared with the HC group (all p < 0.05, d = 0.41–0.63), as well as higher levels of TNF-α when compared with the BD group (p = 0.014, d = 0.50); there were no differences between the BD and HC groups for any markers. Exposure to sexual abuse was positively associated (standardised β = 0.326, t = 2.459, p = 0.018) with levels of CRP in the SZ group, but there were no significant associations between any form of trauma exposure and cytokine levels in the HC or BD groups.
These results contribute to the evidence for a chronic state of inflammation in SZ but not BD cases. Differential associations between trauma exposure and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines across the diagnostic categories suggest that trauma may impact biological (stress and immune) systems differently in these patient groups.
To identify potential participants for clinical trials, electronic health records (EHRs) are searched at potential sites. As an alternative, we investigated using medical devices used for real-time diagnostic decisions for trial enrollment.
To project cohorts for a trial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), we used electrocardiograph-based algorithms that identify ACS or ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that prompt clinicians to offer patients trial enrollment. We searched six hospitals’ electrocardiograph systems for electrocardiograms (ECGs) meeting the planned trial’s enrollment criterion: ECGs with STEMI or > 75% probability of ACS by the acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument (ACI-TIPI). We revised the ACI-TIPI regression to require only data directly from the electrocardiograph, the e-ACI-TIPI using the same data used for the original ACI-TIPI (development set n = 3,453; test set n = 2,315). We also tested both on data from emergency department electrocardiographs from across the US (n = 8,556). We then used ACI-TIPI and e-ACI-TIPI to identify potential cohorts for the ACS trial and compared performance to cohorts from EHR data at the hospitals.
Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas on the test set were excellent, 0.89 for ACI-TIPI and 0.84 for the e-ACI-TIPI, as was calibration. On the national electrocardiographic database, ROC areas were 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, and with very good calibration. When tested for detection of patients with > 75% ACS probability, both electrocardiograph-based methods identified eligible patients well, and better than did EHRs.
Using data from medical devices such as electrocardiographs may provide accurate projections of available cohorts for clinical trials.
The relationship between sildenafil dosing, exposure, and systemic hypotension in infants is incompletely understood.
The aim of this study was to characterise the relationship between predicted sildenafil exposure and hypotension in hospitalised infants.
We extracted information on sildenafil dosing and clinical characteristics from electronic health records of 348 neonatal ICUs from 1997 to 2013, and we predicted drug exposure using a population pharmacokinetic model.
We identified 232 infants receiving sildenafil at a median dose of 3.2 mg/kg/day (2.0, 6.0). The median steady-state area under the concentration–time curve over 24 hours (AUC24,SS) and maximum concentration of sildenafil (Cmax,SS,SIL) were 712 ng×hour/ml (401, 1561) and 129 ng/ml (69, 293), respectively. Systemic hypotension occurred in 9% of the cohort. In multivariable analysis, neither dosing nor exposure were associated with systemic hypotension: odds ratio=0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 1.14) for sildenafil dose; 0.87 (0.59, 1.28) for AUC24,SS; 1.19 (0.78, 1.82) for Cmax,SS,SIL.
We found no association between sildenafil dosing or exposure with systemic hypotension. Continued assessment of sildenafil’s safety profile in infants is warranted.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
The secondary instability of linear transient growth (TG) in Couette flow is explored theoretically, utilizing an analytical representation of the TG based on four modes and their nonlinear interactions. The evolution of the secondary disturbance is derived using the multiple time scales method. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct numerical simulations and very good agreement with respect to the growth of the disturbance energy and associated vortical structures is observed, up to the final stage just before the breakdown to turbulence. The theoretical model enables us to perform a full parametric study, including TG symmetry type, various wavenumbers, initial energy, TG nonlinearity and Reynolds number, to find all possible routes to transition and the optimal parameters for each type of the secondary disturbance. It is found that the most dangerous secondary disturbances are associated with spanwise wavenumbers which generate the strongest inflection points, i.e. those having maximal shear, rather than with those maximizing the energy gain during the TG phase.
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have attracted attention for their potential use in a variety of applications owing to their mechanical robustness, thermal stability, natural abundance and low cost. The inclusion of HNTs into epoxy matrix at low concentrations was found to be effective in stiffening and hardening. At 1 vol% loading, composites showed improvements up to 50% in modulus and 100% in hardness compared to pure epoxy, based on nanoindentation measurements. In addition, tribology studies using TriboIndenter and AFM showed an increase of wear resistance; depending on their orientation in the composite, HNTs can decrease the scratch volume by 50% at fixed loading levels. Adding HNTs into epoxy had almost no effect on the transmittance over the range of wavelength from 400 to 700 nm. Transmittance values of 91% were observed for HNT concentrations as high as 10 vol%.