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Advanced imaging techniques are enhancing research capacity focussed on the developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, and consequently increasing awareness of future health risks across various subareas of DOHaD research themes. Understanding how these advanced imaging techniques in animal models and human population studies can be both additively and synergistically used alongside traditional techniques in DOHaD-focussed laboratories is therefore of great interest. Global experts in advanced imaging techniques congregated at the advanced imaging workshop at the 2019 DOHaD World Congress in Melbourne, Australia. This review summarizes the presentations of new imaging modalities and novel applications to DOHaD research and discussions had by DOHaD researchers that are currently utilizing advanced imaging techniques including MRI, hyperpolarized MRI, ultrasound, and synchrotron-based techniques to aid their DOHaD research focus.
Economic hardship (EH) may link to poorer child diet, however whether this association is due to resource limitations or effects on family functioning is unknown. This study examines whether parenting stress mediates the association between EH and child consumption of foods high in saturated fats and added sugars (SFAS).
Data were collected from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study. EH was assessed using eight items collected when children were between 1–9 years old. Mothers reported parenting stress and frequency of child consumption of high SFAS foods when children were 9 years old. Latent growth curve modelling (LGCM) and structural equation modelling tested direct associations between the starting level/rate of change in EH and high SFAS food consumption, and parenting stress as a mediator of the association.
Twenty US cities.
Mothers/children (n 3846) followed birth through age 9 years, oversampled ‘high-risk’, unmarried mothers.
LGCM indicated a curvilinear trend in EH from ages 1–9, with steeper increases from ages 3–9 years. EH did not directly predict the frequency of high SFAS foods. Average EH at 3 and 5 years and change in EH from ages 1–9 predicted higher parenting stress, which in turn predicted more frequent consumption of high SFAS foods.
Findings suggest it may be important to consider parenting stress in early prevention efforts given potential lasting effects of early life EH on child consumption of high SFAS foods. Future research should explore how supports and resources may buffer effects of EH-related stress on parents and children.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Environmental factors may significantly increase the risk of or buffer against Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, yet strategies to address cognitive decline and impairment to date largely overlook the role of neighborhoods. This mixed-methods study is the first to examine potential links between access to eateries and cognitive function. The goal is to inform place-specific interventions to help aging individuals reduce risk for cognitive impairment through neighborhood community and design. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design, seated and mobile interviews with 125 adults aged 55-92 (mean age 71) living in the Minneapolis (Minnesota) metropolitan area suggest that eateries, including coffee shops and fast-food restaurants, represent popular neighborhood destinations for older adults and sources of wellbeing. To test the hypothesis that these sites, and the benefits they confer, are associated with cognitive welfare, we analyzed data from urban and suburban dwelling participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a national racially diverse sample of older Americans followed since 2003 (n = 16,404, average age at assessment 72 years). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Qualitative thematic analysis of how older adults perceived and utilized local eateries include sites of familiarity and comfort; physical and economic accessibility; sociability with friends, family, staff, and customers; and entertainment (e.g., destinations for outings and walks, free newspapers to read). Quantitative results from multilevel linear regression models demonstrate a positive association between density of eateries and cognitive functioning. Taken together, these results complicate our understanding of fast-food settings as possible sites of wellbeing through social interaction and leisure activities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results contribute new evidence towards an emerging ecological model of cognitive health. Understanding whether and how retail food environments can help buffer against cognitive decline among older adults provides novel opportunities to promote wellbeing in later life through community interventions and neighborhood design.
Over the past decade, a growing interest has developed on the archaeology, palaeontology, and palaeoenvironments of the Arabian Peninsula. It is now clear that hominins repeatedly dispersed into Arabia, notably during pluvial interglacial periods when much of the peninsula was characterised by a semiarid grassland environment. During the intervening glacial phases, however, grasslands were replaced with arid and hyperarid deserts. These millennial-scale climatic fluctuations have subjected bones and fossils to a dramatic suite of environmental conditions, affecting their fossilisation and preservation. Yet, as relatively few palaeontological assemblages have been reported from the Pleistocene of Arabia, our understanding of the preservational pathways that skeletal elements can take in these types of environments is lacking. Here, we report the first widespread taxonomic and taphonomic assessment of Arabian fossil deposits. Novel fossil fauna are described and overall the fauna are consistent with a well-watered semiarid grassland environment. Likewise, the taphonomic results suggest that bones were deposited under more humid conditions than present in the region today. However, fossils often exhibit significant attrition, obscuring and fragmenting most finds. These are likely tied to wind abrasion, insolation, and salt weathering following fossilisation and exhumation, processes particularly prevalent in desert environments.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
We propose the nasal administration of calcium-enriched physiological salts as a new hygienic intervention with possible therapeutic application as a response to the rapid and tenacious spread of COVID-19. We test the effectiveness of these salts against viral and bacterial pathogens in animals and humans. We find that aerosol administration of these salts to the airways diminishes the exhalation of the small particles that face masks fail to filter and, in the case of an influenza swine model, completely block airborne transmission of disease. In a study of 10 human volunteers (5 less than 65 years and 5 older than 65 years), we show that delivery of a nasal saline comprising calcium and sodium salts quickly (within 15 min) and durably (up to at least 6 h) diminishes exhaled particles from the human airways. Being predominantly smaller than 1 μm, these particles are below the size effectively filtered by conventional masks. The suppression of exhaled droplets by the nasal delivery of calcium-rich saline with aerosol droplet size of around 10 μm suggests the upper airways as a primary source of bioaerosol generation. The suppression effect is especially pronounced (99%) among those who exhale large numbers of particles. In our study, we found this high-particle exhalation group to correlate with advanced age. We argue for a new hygienic practice of nasal cleansing by a calcium-rich saline aerosol, to complement the washing of hands with ordinary soap, use of a face mask, and social distancing.
When Zeus begins to fulfil his promise to Thetis, he does it by auspicious signs to encourage the Trojans, thundering on the right-hand side (Il. 8.170–83) to give false hope to their leader Hector, who now surges out to destroy the Greeks (see esp. Il. 8.496–541). Agamemnon despairs: he admits to the other leaders that he was a fool to insult Achilles, and they arrange to send three men to plead with him to return to combat.
Despite the profound intellectual significance of what has happened between Enkidu and Gilgamesh, to judge from the surviving fragments1 the poem does not not yet move to the inner experiences of the bereaved friend or lover. Instead, Tablet VIII recounts the mourning and commemoration for Enkidu: the external, social manifestations of Gilgamesh’s response to the death.
In the Works and Days it is Zeus who makes the heroes and brings about their posthumous translation to the Isles of the Blest, and in the Catalogue of Women he establishes the great destruction that ends their time of flourishing on earth. Here, then, the story becomes a matter of theology: What does it mean to speak of Zeus’ desires and decisions? And how do they relate to those of the other members of the divine society?
With the narrative approaching its murderous climax, the next scene is marked by the personal involvement of many gods. At Zeus’ command the Olympians have been gathered to council by Themis, the personification of eternal law; Zeus, taking pleasure in the spectacle
Wisdom, as we have suggested, is at the centre of the epic tradition overall, and as we move towards the inner discourse of the Trojan War tradition, Hesiod’s Works and Days will provide our initial orientation, beginning from the family dispute that prompts the poet’s sequence of teachings. Hesiod’s father has died, leaving him and his brother Perses to inherit the farm; but Perses has set up a dishonest scheme with corrupt local leaders (basilees, sometimes translated ‘kings’ or ‘chieftains’), trying to leverage greater wealth for himself and in the process ruining his own fortunes.
Any authentic account of the Iliad must include the Trojan champion Hector, whose life and death run in counterpoint with those of Achilles. If we have barely considered Hector up to now, this has been an inevitable consequence of the comparative method: his story does not obviously recall that of Gilgamesh, and indeed it is much harder to find close parallels for him anywhere in the corpus of Mesopotamian literature.