A biotype of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum G. ♯ LOLRI) has become resistant to amitrole and atrazine after 10 yr of exposure to a mixture of these herbicides. Resistance has also been demonstrated to the chloro-s-triazines: simazine, cyanazine, propazine; the methylthios-triazines: ametryn, prometryn; the substituted ureas: chlortoluron, isoproturon, metoxuron, diuron, fluometuron, methazole; and the triazinone herbicide metribuzin. The biotype remains susceptible to chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, sulfometuron, sethoxydim, diclofop, fluazifop, glyphosate, carbetamide, and oxyfluorfen. Inhibition of oxygen evolution by atrazine, diuron, and metribuzin was similar in thylakoids isolated from both resistant and susceptible biotypes. Therefore, resistance to the photosystem II inhibitors is not caused by an alteration of the target site of these herbicides. Resistant plants treated with a 3-h pulse of 0.12 mM chlortoluron recover photosynthetic activity more rapidly than susceptible plants. This suggests that the basis for resistance is enhanced metabolism or sequestration of the herbicide within the leaf.