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In prior research, specimen holders that employ a novel MEMS-based heating technology (AduroTM) provided by Protochips Inc. (Raleigh, NC, USA) have been shown to permit sub-Ångström imaging at elevated temperatures up to 1,000°C during in situ heating experiments in modern aberration-corrected electron microscopes. The Aduro heating devices permit precise control of temperature and have the unique feature of providing both heating and cooling rates of 106°C/s. In the present work, we describe the recent development of a new specimen holder that incorporates the Aduro heating device into a “closed-cell” configuration, designed to function within the narrow (2 mm) objective lens pole piece gap of an aberration-corrected JEOL 2200FS STEM/TEM, and capable of exposing specimens to gases at pressures up to 1 atm. We show the early results of tests of this specimen holder demonstrating imaging at elevated temperatures and at pressures up to a full atmosphere, while retaining the atomic resolution performance of the microscope in high-angle annular dark-field and bright-field imaging modes.
This article uses census microdata to address key issues in the Mexican immigration debate. First, we find striking parallels in the experiences of older and newer immigrant groups with substantial progress among second- and subsequent-generation immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Mexican Americans. Second, we contradict a view of immigrant history that contends that early–twentieth–century immigrants from southern and eastern Europe found well–paying jobs in manufacturing that facilitated their ascent into the middle class. Both first and second generations remained predominantly working class until after World War II. Third, the erosion of the institutions that advanced earlier immigrant generations is harming the prospects of Mexican Americans. Fourth, the mobility experience of earlier immigrants and of Mexicans and Mexican Americans differed by gender, with a gender gap opening among Mexican Americans as women pioneered the path to white–collar and professional work. Fifth, public–sector and publicly funded employment has proved crucial to upward mobility, especially among women. The reliance on public employment, as contrasted to entrepreneurship, has been one factor setting the Mexican and African American experience apart from the economic history of most southern and eastern European groups as well as from the experiences of some other immigrant groups today.
Organic semiconductors are of continued interest for low-cost display drivers and logic elements. Field-effect transistors (FETs) with organic semiconductor channels have been fabricated in arrays to drive electrophoretic display pixels and polymer dispersed liquid crystals (http://www.research.philips.com/pressmedia/releases/000901a.html). Complementary logic elements and shift registers containing hundreds of organic-based FETs have been produced, and high-speed organic circuits have been fabricated on polyester substrates. The source and drain electrodes of individual FETs have been patterned using microcontact printing and inkjet methods to give extraordinary aspect ratios. Inorganic and hybrid materials have been deposited as FET semiconductors using the methods of “organic electronics”. Organic FET channels have been harnessed to demonstrate ambipolar transport, chemical sensitivity, superconductivity, and electrically pumped lasers.
In the early 1970s, President Richard Nixon referred to Aid to Families with Dependent Children as “the program we all normally think of when we think of ‘welfare.’” When President Bill Clinton promised to “end welfare as we know it” in the early 1990s, everyone knew that he meant AFDC. “Welfare” had become a code word for public assistance given mainly to unmarried mothers, mostly young women of color. Few terms evoked as much hostility among Americans as “welfare.” No other public benefits carried its stigma. The political left, right, and center all attacked it.
The editors of the History of Education Quarterly are pleased to present this forum on Lawrence A. Cremin's American Education: The Metropolitan Experience, 1876–1980. Beginning in the 1960s, Cremin began to chart a new and distinctive approach to the study of America's educational past. This final volume on “the metropolitan experience” therefore completes a trilogy over two decades in the making. We hope that this forum offers our readers an opportunity to reflect upon Cremin's contributions. We are very grateful to Robert L. Church of Michigan State University, Michael B. Katz of the University of Pennsylvania, Harold Silver of Oxford, England, and, of course, Professor Cremin himself for graciously participating in this lively exchange of ideas.
The essays below continue a debate that began with the publication of Michael B. Katz, The Irony of Early School Reform: Educational Innovation in Mid-Nineteenth Century Massachusetts (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968). One celebrated part of this important work was a study of the controversy over the public high school in Beverly, Massachusetts, including a close analysis of the vote in 1860 to abolish the school. The occasion for these essays is the publication of Maris A. Vinovskis, The Origins of Public High Schools: A Reexamination of the Beverly High School Controversy (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1985). The first essay is a review of the Vinovskis study by Katz, now professor of history at the University of Pennsylvania; the second is a review by Edward Stevens, Jr., professor of education at Ohio University; the third is a response to these reviews by Vinovskis, professor of history and research scientist at the Center for Political Studies at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan.