There has been much recent interest in heat transport in nanostructures, and alsoin the structure, properties, and growth of biological materials. Here we present measurements of thermal properties of a nanostructured biomineral, ivory. The room-temperature thermal conductivity of ivory is anomalously low in comparison with its constituent components. Low-temperature (2–300 K) measurements ofthermal conductivity and heat capacity reveal a glass-like temperature dependenceof the thermal conductivity and phonon mean free path, consistent with increased phonon-boundary scattering associated with nanostructure. These results suggest that biomineral-like nanocomposite structures could be useful in the design of novel high-strength materials for low thermal conductivity applications.