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Monolithic integrated thin film tandem solar cells consisting of a high bandgap perovskite top cell and a low bandgap thin film bottom cell are expected to reach higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with lower manufacturing cost and environmental impacts than the market-dominant crystalline silicon photovoltaics. There have been several demonstrations of 4-terminal and 2-terminal perovskite tandem devices with CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) or CuInSe2 (CIS) and, similar to the other tandem structures, the optimization of this device relies on optimal choice for the perovskite bandgap and thickness. Therefore, further advancement will be enabled by tuning the perovskite absorber to maximize the photocurrent limited by the current match condition. Here, we systematically study the optical absorption and transmission of perovskite thin films with varying absorber band gap. Based on these results, we model the photocurrent generations in both perovskite and CIS subcells and estimate the performances of projected tandem devices by considering the ideally functioning perovskite and CIS device. Our results show that for perovskite layers with 500 nm thickness the optimal bandgap is around 1.6 eV. With these configurations, PCEs above 20% could be achieved by monolithically integrated perovskite/CIS tandem solar cells. Also by modelling the absorption at every layer we calculate the quantum efficiency at each subcell in addition to tracking optical losses.
Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the defect levels in thin film copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2, CIS) which we are developing as the absorber layer for the bottom cell of a monolithically grown perovskite/CuInSe2 tandem solar cell. Temperature and laser power dependent PL measurements of thin film CIS for two different Cu/In ratios (0.66 and 0.80) have been performed. The CIS film with Cu/In = 0.80 shows a prominent donor-to-acceptor peak (DAP) involving a shallow acceptor of binding energy ∼22 meV, with phonon replica at ∼32 meV spacing. In contrast, PL measurement of CIS film for Cu/In = 0.66 taken at 20 K exhibited an asymmetric and broad PL spectrum with peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV. Laser intensity dependent PL revealed that the observed peaks 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV shift towards higher energy (aka j-shift) at ∼11.7 meV/decade and ∼ 8 meV/decade with increase in laser intensity respectively. The asymmetric and broad spectrum together with large j-shift suggests that the observed peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV were related to band-to-tail (BT) and band-to-impurity (BI) transition, respectively. Such a band-tail-related transition originates from the potential fluctuation of defect states at low temperature. The appearance of band related transition in CIS film with Cu/In = 0.66 is the indicator of the presence of large number of charged defect states.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
Engraved and carved bone and stone artifacts capture our imaginations and are known worldwide from archaeological contexts, but they are seemingly rare and oftentimes difficult to recognize. While preservation issues play a role in the limited recovery of early art objects, research on incised stones and bone from the Gault site in Texas demonstrates that an expectation to find such artifacts plays a key role in their identification and recovery. The presence of incised stones found by collectors at Gault alerted archaeologists to the potential for finding early art in systematic excavations. To date, 11 incised stones and one engraved bone of Paleoindian age (13,000–9,000 calibrated years before present) have been recovered and of these, the Clovis artifacts are among the earliest portable art objects from secure context in North America. The presence of incised stone and bone at Gault led to the development of an examination protocol for identifying and analyzing engraved and incised artifacts that can be applied to a wide variety of archaeological contexts.
Since the discovery in 1989 that mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians, it has been possible to identify heterozygous mutation carriers at risk of having affected children. The Human Genetics Society of Australasia has produced a position statement with recommendations in relation to population-based screening for CF. These include: (1) that screening should be offered to all relatives of people with or carriers of CF (cascade testing) as well as to all couples planning to have children or who are pregnant; (2) the minimum CFTR mutation panel to be tested consists of 17 mutations which are those mutations that are associated with typical CF and occur with a frequency of 0.1% or higher among individuals diagnosed with CF in Australasia; (3) that genetic counselling is offered to all couples where both members are known to have one or two CFTR mutations and that such couples are given the opportunity to meet with a physician with expertise in the management of CF as well as a family/individual affected by the condition.
The peopling of Australia and the Americas occurred after fully modern humans had evolved. Most of tropical and temperate Africa, Europe and Asia were peopled long before Australia, the last of the major Old World regions to be occupied, was colonised around fifty thousand years ago. Between 50,000 and 30,000 bp, humans with sophisticated cultural equipment were pressing into colder latitudes of northern Eurasia and had developed watercraft capable of near-shore maritime travel. Ocean margins were becoming part of the human niche. Glacial conditions advanced southwards from the Arctic 30,000 to 22,000 bp and then retreated by 13,000 bp, greatly affecting plants, animals and humans in the Northern Hemisphere.
Arriving at, and colonising, the Americas is a significant but not extraordinary chapter in human history – just another step in a long evolutionary journey. Humans were biologically and culturally preadapted to vast temperate and tropical areas of this hemisphere. These were in reach when human technology overcame harsh Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine and terrestrial environments and tapped rich circumpolar marine resources of fish, sea mammals, birds and land mammals. Some species of fish, sea mammals and birds occur in these northern waters in staggering numbers. These resources would be irresistible challenges to human ingenuity. Colonisers of the Americas were fully adapted to northern latitudes, were equipped with boats and possessed all of the ingenuity of modern humans. Colonisation may have come by way of the Pacific, the Atlantic or both.
The transition from Palaeoindian to Archaic societies in North America is often viewed as a linear progression over a brief but time-transgressive period. New evidence from the Wilson-Leonard site in Texas suggests social experimentation by Palaeoindians over a 2500-year period eventually resulted in Archaic societies. The process was neither short nor linear, and the evidence shows that different but contemporaneous lifeways existed in a variety of locales in the south-central US in the Early Holocene.
We compared conventional and alternative systems for the establishment of apple trees on a replicated, whole-orchard scale. The alternative system consisted of a K-31 fescue sod rotation followed by planting of trees directly into sod that had been kitted with herbicide. The conventional system consisted of a standard corn rotation, accompanied by application of fertilizer and nematicide. Orchard floor management in the three years following tree planting was based on the use of both pre-and post-emergence herbicides in the conventional system and only contact herbicide in the alternative system. The study documented tree growth, pest incidence, and nitrate mobility in the two systems. The alternative system compared favorably with the conventional system for the growth and establishment of four apple cultivars. Many advantages accompanied the killed sod system, including less subsurface leaching ofnitrate-N and lower costs (largely from decreased herbicide use). The alternative system provided an economical alternative to the problem of soil organic matter depletion in conventional orchard soils without requiring increased use of commercial fertilizers. Grower concerns regarding increased potential for vole damage and poor initial tree growth were unsubstantiated.
Thin film diamond has been used to fabricate a photodetector which displays high sensitivity to deep UV light, with an external quantum efficiency of greater than one, a dark current of less than 0.1nA and which is near ‘blind’ to visible light.