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Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) approach to emergency prehospital care in the United States (US) has global influence. As the 50-year anniversary of modern US EMS approaches, there is value in examining US EMS education development over this period. This report describes US EMS education milestones and identifies themes that provide context to readers outside the US.
As US EMS education is described mainly in publications of federal US EMS agencies and associations, a Google search and hand searching of documents identified publications in the public domain. MEDLINE and CINAHL Plus were searched for peer reviewed publications. Documents were reviewed using both a chronological and thematic approach.
Seventy-eight documents and 685 articles were screened, the full texts of 175 were reviewed, and 41 were selected for full review. Four historical periods in US EMS education became apparent: EMS education development (1966-1980); EMS education consolidation and review (1981-1989); EMS education reflection and change (1990-1999); and EMS education for the future (2000-2014). Four major themes emerged: legislative authority, physician direction, quality, and development of the profession.
Documents produced through broad interprofessional consultations, with support from federal and US EMS authorities, reflect the catalysts for US EMS education development. The current model of US EMS education provides a structure to enhance educational quality into the future. Implementation evaluation of this model would be a valuable addition to the US EMS literature. The themes emerging from this review assist the understanding of the characteristics of US EMS education.
BrooksIA, SayreMR, SpencerC, ArcherFL. An Historical Examination of the Development of Emergency Medical Services Education in the US through Key Reports (1966-2014). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(1):90–97.
Early findings from a national study of discharges from 32 National
Health Service medium secure units revealed that nearly twice as many
patients than expected were discharged back to prison.
To compare the characteristics of those discharged back to prison with
those discharged to the community, and consider the implications for
ongoing care and risk.
Prospective cohort follow-up design. All forensic patients discharged
from 32 medium secure units across England and Wales over a 12-month
period were identified. Those discharged to prison were compared with
those who were discharged to the community.
Nearly half of the individuals discharged to prison were diagnosed with a
serious mental illness and over a third with schizophrenia. They were a
higher risk, more likely to have a personality disorder, more symptomatic
and less motivated than those discharged to the community.
Findings suggest that alternative models of prison mental healthcare
should be considered to reduce risks to the patient and the public.