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The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute-care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical-site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014.1 This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). It is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), the American Hospital Association (AHA), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
The state of Maryland identified its first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on March 5, 2020. The Baltimore Convention Center (BCCFH) quickly became a selected location to set up a 250-bed inpatient field hospital and alternate care site. In contrast to other field hospitals throughout the United States, the BCCFH remained open throughout the pandemic and took on additional COVID-19 missions, including community severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostic testing, monoclonal antibody infusions for COVID-19 outpatients, and community COVID-19 vaccinations.
To prevent the spread of pathogens during operations, infection prevention and control guidelines were essential to ensure the safety of staff and patients. Through multi-agency collaboration, use of infection prevention best practices, and answering what we describe as PPE-ESP, an operational framework was established to reduce infection risks for those providing or receiving care at the BCCFH during the COVID-19 pandemic.
In the modern era of carefully monitored renovations, construction-related Aspergillus outbreaks have decreased. We investigated an increase in clinical cultures growing Aspergillus species, determining that contamination of the mycology lab caused a pseudo-outbreak. A major construction site was appropriately sealed, but unrecognized staff traffic may have facilitated laboratory contamination.
We assessed the impact of a reflex urine culture protocol, an intervention aimed to reduce unnecessary urine culturing, in intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. Significant decreases in urine culturing rates and reported rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection followed implementation of the protocol.
To assess antimicrobial utilization before and after a change in urine culture ordering practice in adult intensive care units (ICUs) whereby urine cultures were only performed when pyuria was detected.
A 700-bed academic medical center
Patients admitted to any adult ICU
Aggregate data for all adult ICUs were obtained for population-level antimicrobial use (days of therapy [DOT]), urine cultures performed, and bacteriuria, all measured per 1,000 patient days before the intervention (January–December 2012) and after the intervention (January–December 2013). These data were compared using interrupted time series negative binomial regression. Randomly selected patient charts from the population of adult ICU patients with orders for urine culture in the presence of indwelling or recently removed urinary catheters were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and antimicrobial use characteristics, and pre- and post-intervention data were compared.
Statistically significant reductions were observed in aggregate monthly rates of urine cultures performed and bacteriuria detected but not in DOT. At the patient level, compared with the pre-intervention group (n=250), in the post-intervention group (n=250), fewer patients started a new antimicrobial therapy based on urine culture results (23% vs 41%, P=.002), but no difference in the mean total DOT was observed.
A change in urine-culture ordering practice was associated with a decrease in the percentage of patients starting a new antimicrobial therapy based on the index urine-culture order but not in total duration of antimicrobial use in adult ICUs. Other drivers of antimicrobial use in ICU patients need to be evaluated by antimicrobial stewardship teams.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):448–454
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) risk adjustment methods for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) only adjust for type of intensive care unit (ICU). This cohort study explored risk factors for CLABSI using 2 comorbidity classification schemes, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the Chronic Disease Score (CDS). Our study supports the need for additional research into risk factors for CLABSI, including electronically available comorbid conditions.
The validity of the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) measure is compromised by subjectivity. We observed significant decreases in both CLABSIs and total hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs) following a CLABSI prevention intervention in adult intensive care units. Total hospital-acquired BSIs could be explored as an adjunct, objective CLABSI measure.
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