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First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20–30 m s−1 on our survey targets.
Small-angle light scattering (SALS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) were used to study the influence of heat treatment on the texture and microstructure of extruded films of high-performance thermotropic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs). The microstructure was correlated with tensile mechanical properties. LCPs based on random units of hydroxybenzoic acid (B), hydroxynaphthoic acid (N), terephthalic acid (TA) and biphenol (BP) were supplied by the former Hoechst Celanese Corp. as 50 μm thick extruded films. The LCPs, denoted B-N, COTBP and RD1000, have B and N as common co-monomers and vary the other co-monomers. Thus, this study also enabled the investigation of the influence of monomer composition on microstructure and mechanical properties. Heat treatments were carried out at temperatures close to the solid-to-nematic transition (Ts→n) for periods up to 5 h, under dry air conditions. The thermal treatment produced either two endotherms or a small increase of Ts→n (B-N and RD1000), or Ts→n increased significantly (COTBP). Moreover, when heat treatment was carried out approximately 40°C below the respective Ts→n, the mechanical Young’s modulus, E, along the extrusion axis increased for all LCPs. Strikingly, for COTBP, E increased over 100% relative to the as-extruded film. The results also showed that the optimum treatment time for improving the Young modulus was between 3 and 4 h. Wide-angle X-ray scattering showed a significant sharpening of crystalline reflections and concentration of the 002 meridional reflection as a result of thermal treatment, suggesting the elimination of defects and a better alignment of the molecular chains along the extrusion axis. This would explain the increase in tensile modulus.
This report details the survey, excavations and materials analysis carried out at Case Nuove (GR) in Tuscany, a site identified by surface survey as a possible rural house, but which excavation and materials analysis suggest was a small-scale agro-processing point of late Republican date. Through accompanying analysis of pollen and land-use data, the article considers the problems this type of site — the stand-alone agro-processing point — presents for interpretations of the Roman landscape.
In this research we have focused on the influence of thermal treatment for periods of time on the thermal and mechanical properties of extruded films of a series of high-performance thermotropic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs). The dependence of microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties on the extent of thermal treatment is investigated. Especially synthesized wholly aromatic LCPs based on hydroxybenzoic acid (B), hydroxynaphthoic acid (N), terephthalic acid (TA) and biphenol (BP) are kindly supplied by Hoechst Celanese Research Corp in the form of 50 μm thick extruded films. Thus, the influence of monomer composition is also studied in order to contrast the influence of molecular conformation. Thermal treatments are carried out at temperatures close to the solid-to-nematic transition (Ts→n) for up to several hours under dry air conditions. The results show a profound influence of thermal annealing on morphology and mechanical modulus when annealing is carried out c.a. 40ºC below Ts→n, where solid-to-nematic transition and Young’s modulus are significantly increased.
We present a method that uses two- and three-particle correlation functions between solute atoms and water molecules to approximate the density profile of water surrounding biomolecules. The method is based on a potential of mean force expansion and uses X-ray crystallography, NMR, or modeling structural input information on the biomolecule. For small hydrophobic solutes, we have calculated entropies of hydration using the predicted water densities that are in good agreement with experimental results. We have also predicted the hydration of the catabolite activator protein-DNA complex. The method is extremely efficient and makes possible the study of hydration of large biomolecules within CPU minutes.
Collaboration is used by the US National Security Council as a means to integrate inter-federal government agencies during planning and execution of common goals towards unified, national security. The concept of collaboration has benefits in the healthcare system by building trust, sharing resources, and reducing costs. The current terrorist threats have made collaborative medical training between military and civilian agencies crucial.
This review summarizes the long and rich history of collaboration between civilians and the military in various countries and provides support for the continuation and improvement of collaborative efforts. Through collaboration, advances in the treatment of injuries have been realized, deaths have been reduced, and significant strides in the betterment of the Emergency Medical System have been achieved. This review promotes collaborative medical training between military and civilian medical professionals and provides recommendations for the future based on medical collaboration.
There is evidence that the prevalence of common mental disorders varies
To compare prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice
attendees in six European countries.
Unselected attendees to general practices in the UK, Spain, Portugal,
Slovenia, Estonia and The Netherlands were assessed for major depression,
panic syndrome and other anxiety syndrome. Prevalence of DSM–IV major
depression, other anxiety syndrome and panic syndrome was compared
between the UK and other countries after taking account of differences in
demographic factors and practice consultation rates.
Prevalence was estimated in 2344 men and 4865 women. The highest
prevalence for all disorders occurred in the UK and Spain, and lowest in
Slovenia and The Netherlands. Men aged 30–50 and women aged 18–30 had the
highest prevalence of major depression; men aged 40–60 had the highest
prevalence of anxiety, and men and women aged 40–50 had the highest
prevalence of panic syndrome. Demographic factors accounted for the
variance between the UK and Spain but otherwise had little impact on the
significance of observed country differences.
These results add to the evidence for real differences between European
countries in prevalence of psychological disorders and show that the
burden of care on general practitioners varies markedly between
Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) report generalized weakness and reduced exercise tolerance up to two years following discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Persistent neuromuscular complications of ARDS may contribute to the functional disability observed in these patients.
Sixteen ARDS survivors underwent comprehensive neurological evaluation and standardized electrodiagnostic testing 6 to 24 months after ICU discharge. Four of these patients agreed to open muscle biopsy.
Seven of sixteen patients had clinically significant focal compressive mononeuropathies. Electrodiagnostic testing failed to reveal any changes attributable to critical illness polyneuropathy or myopathy. All four muscle biopsies were abnormal, and although the pathological features were structurally non-specific, the presence of an acquired myopathy remains possible. Four patients had persistent mixed sensory complaints but had normal electrodiagnostic evaluation.
The high frequency of mononeuropathies highlights the need for vigilance in daily ICU care. The findings also suggest that complaints of weakness and reduced exercise capacity in ARDS survivors may be related to combined effects of compressive neuropathies and generalized longstanding structural changes in muscle and may support an organic basis for longterm functional disability.
Many observers have noted that the sea is full of loud sounds, both ongoing and episodic. Among the many sources of natural ambient noise are wave action, physical processes such as undersea earthquakes, and biological activities of shrimps, fish, dolphins and whales. Despite interest by acoustics experts, sound production by cephalopods has been reported only twice, both involving squid. The ‘faint poppings’ produced were thought to result from fluttering of the thin external lips of the squid's funnel while water is being expelled through it. Otherwise, no information is available on cephalopod sounds. Here we present a noise produced by a stressed common octopus. The event was filmed and recorded in the wild. The hypothesis we offer to explain how this sound was produced is cavitation, which has been documented in several biological systems. In our case, the water expelled through the funnel may have created a jet with a velocity so high that the turbulent pressure dropped locally below the vapour pressure of the water. Seawater contains gas microbubbles, which will grow in size when they are entrained in the region of low pressure. Subsequently, the bubbles collapse violently when pressure rises again. The sound produced by the octopus is like a gunshot, and distinct lights observed at the same time contradict the existence of a simple pressure wave and point to the possible presence of gas-bubbles, which would change the light intensity by reflection and refraction of the sunlight. This behaviour seems to be a defensive strategy to escape from vibration-sensitive predators.
Jack Pender, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, USA,
Bill Pearman, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, USA,
Jon Scaffidi, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, USA,
Scott R. Goode, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, USA,
S. Michael Angel, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, USA
In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), first reported by Brech and Cross in 1962 , a laser is used to ablate and atomize material from a sample and to form a plasma. Emission from the plasma is used to identify and quantify elements within the sample. The ability to form a plasma on unprepared samples makes LIBS an amazingly versatile analytical technique. It is one of the few techniques that can be used for non-contact elemental analysis, making LIBS uniquely suited to measurements of hazardous materials and materials in difficult-to-reach locations [2–16]. The sampling is virtually non-destructive, making LIBS useful for such unique applications as the analysis of priceless works of art and archeological relics [17–21]. Other applications that benefit from the unique advantages of LIBS include environmental [22–28], industrial [2–4, 23, 24, 29–36], geological [22, 25–27], planetary , art [28–42], medical [43, 44], and dental  measurements. Recently, many researchers have coupled LIBS with other techniques such as ICP-MS[12, 41, 42, 46–48].
Despite the increasing popularity of LIBS, the sensitivity and precision of the technique are relatively poor compared with other forms of atomic spectroscopy and there are significant matrix effects and relatively high background signals . There are also many fundamental studies aimed at improving the sensitivity and precision of LIBS[34, 50–54]. These studies have led to investigations of multiple-pulse LIBS, which can give greatly enhanced emission signals and improved signal to background ratio [55–58].
Background: Spanish-language screening tests that are sensitive to the early cognitive changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are needed. Persons known to be at 50% risk for young-onset AD due to presenilin-1 (PSEN1) mutations provide the opportunity to assess which measures on the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) are most sensitive to these early changes.
Methods: We performed genetic and Spanish-language cognitive testing on 50 Mexican persons without dementia at risk for inheriting PSEN1 mutations. We then compared the performance on sub-items of the MMSE between PSEN1 mutation carriers (MCs) and non-carriers (NCs) using t-tests and Fisher's exact tests. Exploratory multiple logistic regression analyses were also performed.
Results: Twenty-nine persons were MCs and 21 NCs. NCs tended to achieve higher levels of education (p = 0.039) than did MCs. MCs tended to perform more poorly when spelling “MUNDO” backwards and on Orientation, particularly regarding the date. In multiple regression analyses the ability of backwards spelling to predict PSEN1 mutation status was reduced when education was included as an independent variable.
Conclusion: Subjects in the earliest stage of PSEN1-related AD showed deficits on orientation to date and in divided attention when spelling backwards. It is unclear if educational level should be considered an associated feature or a con-founding variable in this population although it should be taken into account when considering performance on the MMSE task of divided attention. The relative lack of deficits on delayed recall of three words probably represents the insensitivity of this measure in early AD. This study supports the utility of autosomal dominant AD as a model of the more common sporadic form of the disorder.
Relapse rates may be as high as 50% in people with major depressive disorder (MDD) previously treated to remission.
Duloxetine, an inhibitor of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake that is licensed in Europe, the USA and elsewhere for the treatment of depressive episodes, was evaluated with regard to its efficacy, safety and tolerability in the prevention of relapse of MDD.
Adult out-patients with MDD received duloxetine (60 mg daily) for 12 weeks (n=533). Patients who responded to the drug were then randomised to duloxetine (60 mgdaily) (n=136) or placebo (n=142) for 26 weeks. The primary measure of efficacy was time to relapse.
Patients who received duloxetine (60 mg daily) experienced significantly longer times to relapse of MDD, and better efficacy global well-being, and quality-of-life outcomes compared with patients who received placebo. It should be noted that adverse events which occur in discontinuation may mimic some signs of depressive relapse, and were not specifically elicited in this study.
Duloxetine (60 mg daily) is effective in the prevention of relapse of MDD during continuation treatment.
Thomas J. Wilbanks, Corporate Research Fellow and Leader of Global Change and Developing country Programs Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).,
Robert W. Kates, University Professor Brown University,
David P. Angel, Associate Professor of Geography and Dean of Graduate Studies and Research Clark University,
Susan L. Cutter, Carolina Distinhuished Professor University of South Carolina,
William E. Easterling, Professor of Geography and Earth System Science Pennsylvania State University,
Michael W. Mayfield, Professor Department of Geography and Planning, Appalachian State University
The Global Change and Local Places project of the Association of American Geographers originated in a 1992 meeting at which participants formulated three propositions:
The grand query regarding the ways scale matters in understanding global climate change would benefit from detailed case studies of localities that were linked to scholars active in climate change-related research at global and national scales;
Such case studies could constitute a basis for designing a research protocol for use in other local case studies, thereby helping build a body of empirical research that could serve as a basis for developing a bottom-up paradigm for global climate change research to complement the dominant top-down paradigm; and
These locality studies should be based at universities whose faculty possessed detailed, long-term knowledge of their local areas, in some cases engaging scholars in global change research who might otherwise not normally participate in a large-scale research project.
Funding for the project outlined at the 1992 meeting was sought and eventually obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mission to Planet Earth Program (subsequently renamed Destination Earth). Intensive work on the project began in 1996 and continued through 2001. The several rounds of proposal writing that preceded funding refined the theoretical rationale for the project and its central components: four study areas located in Kansas, North Carolina, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; and three cross-cutting modules devoted respectively to estimating local greenhouse gas emissions, understanding the forces driving those emissions, and assessing local emission reduction potentials.