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This paper argues that a component of increasing the rate of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youths completing their secondary education is having parents and teachers maintain heightened expectations of these children in achieving this goal. To understand this phenomenon, we investigate the importance of, and discrepancies between, primary caregiver and teacher outlooks regarding Indigenous youths completing year 12. For the purpose of this paper, we adopt the term ‘primary caregiver’ in place of parent. This is because the majority (87.7%) of P1s analysed are the biological mothers with the remainder being close female relatives. P2s analysed are all male, 93.3% are biological fathers; remainder are step-fathers or adoptive fathers. This paper uses quantitative data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children to measure expectations from parents and teachers of Indigenous children. Results suggest that parents maintain exceptionally high expectations of their children, while teacher's expectations significantly decline over the course of Indigenous children's primary and secondary schooling years. We suggest that relationships and communication between parents and teachers, regarding expectations of students, are important to establishing an equilibrium in expectations of children, and that teachers may benefit from further training to address any underlying biases towards Indigenous children.
During mass gatherings, such as marathons, the provision of timely access to health care services is required for the mass gathering population as well as the local community. However, effective provision of health care during sporting mass gatherings is not well understood.
To describe the structures and processes developed for an emergency team to operate an in-event acute health care facility during one of the largest mass sporting participation events in the southern hemisphere, the Gold Coast marathon.
A pragmatic qualitative methodology was used to describe the structures and processes required to operate an in-event acute health care facility providing services for marathon runners and spectators. Content analysis from 12 semi-structured interviews with Emergency Department (ED) clinical staff working during the two-day event was undertaken in 2016.
Structural elements that underpinned the in-event health care facility included: physical spaces such as the clinical zones in the marathon health tent, tent access, and egress points; and resources such as bilingual staff, senior medical staff, and equipment such as electrocardiograms. Critical processes included: clear communication pathways, interprofessional care coordination, and engagement involving shared knowledge of and access to resources. Distinct but overlapping clinical scope between nurses and doctors was also noted as important for timely care provision and appropriate case management. Staff outlined many perceived benefits and opportunities of in-event health care delivery including ED avoidance and disaster training.
This in-event model of emergency care delivery enabled acute out-of-hospital health care to be delivered in a portable and transportable facility. Clinical staff reported satisfaction with their ability to provide a meaningful contribution to hospital avoidance and to the local community. With the number of sporting mass gatherings increasing, this temporary, in-event model of health care provision is one option for event and health care planners to consider.
Community-based strategies designed to minimize the impact on local emergency services during mass gathering events (MGEs) require evaluation to provide evidence to inform best practice.
This study aimed to describe characteristics and outcomes for people aged 16-18 years requiring emergency care before, during, and after a planned youth MGE “Schoolies week” on the Gold Coast, Australia.
A retrospective observational study was undertaken. Presentations from all young adults to the emergency department (ED) or In-Event Health Service (IEHS) over a 21-day period in 2014 were included. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed to compare across time and to describe characteristics of and outcomes for young adults requiring healthcare.
A total of 1029 presentations were made by youth aged 16 – 18 to the ED and IEHS over the study period (ED: 139 pre, 275 during, and 195 post; IEHS: 420 during). Patient characteristics and outcomes to the ED that varied significantly between pre, during, and post Schoolies periods included patient’s age (higher proportion of 17-year-olds), residing outside the Gold Coast region, and not waiting for treatment. All were higher during Schoolies week. Of the 24,375 MGE attendees, 420 (1.72% [95% CI, 1.57 – 1.89], 17.2/1,000) presented to the IEHS. The majority were toxicology related (n=169, 44.9%). Transportation to hospital rate was low (0.03% [95% CI, 0.01 – 0.06], 0.3/1,000) for the 24,375 MGE attendees.
Findings from this study support previous research indicating that MGEs can impact local emergency healthcare services. The provision of the IEHS may have limited this impact. The recipients of care delivery, predominantly males with trauma- or toxicology-related problems, warrants further investigation. Research describing the structures and processes of the IEHC could further inform health care delivery in and out of hospital settings.
Mass gatherings such as marathons are increasingly frequent. During mass gatherings, the provision of timely access to health care services is required for the mass-gathering population, as well as for the local community. However, the nature and impact of health care provision during sporting mass gatherings is not well-understood.
The aim of this study was to describe the structures and processes developed for an emergency health team to operate an in-event, acute health care facility during one of the largest mass-sporting participation events in the southern hemisphere, the Gold Coast Marathon (Queensland, Australia).
A pragmatic, qualitative methodology was used to describe the structures and processes required to operate an in-event, acute health care facility providing services for marathon runners and spectators. Content analysis from 12 semi-structured interviews with emergency department (ED) clinical staff working during the two-day event was undertaken in 2016.
Important structural elements of the in-event health care facility included: physical spaces, such as the clinical zones in the marathon health tent and surrounding area, and access and egress points; and resources such as bilingual staff, senior medical staff, and equipment such as electrocardiograms (ECGs) and intravenous fluids. Process elements of the in-event health care facility included clear communication pathways, as well as inter-professional care coordination and engagement involving shared knowledge of and access to resources, and distinct but overlapping clinical scope between nurses and doctors. This was seen to be critical for timely care provision and appropriate case management. Staff reported many perceived benefits and opportunities of in-event health care delivery, including ED avoidance and disaster training.
This in-event model of emergency care delivery, established in an out-of-hospital location, enabled the delivery of acute health care that could be clearly described and defined. Staff reported satisfaction with their ability to provide a meaningful contribution to hospital avoidance and to the local community. With the number of sporting mass gatherings increasing, this temporary, in-event model of health care provision is one option for event and health care planners to consider.
JohnstonANB, WadhamJ, Polong-BrownJ, AitkenM, RanseJ, HuttonA, RichardsB, CrillyJ.Health Care Provision During a Sporting Mass Gathering: A Structure and Process Description of On-Site Care Delivery. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(1):62–71.
To record the development of liaison psychiatry in the UK and to summarise the current levels of activity. We also highlight the challenges the specialty may face if it is to develop further. History since the 1970s is reviewed by early pioneers and those involved in the present day, with a focus on the key role played by members of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.
We describe the development of training guidelines, the publication of joint documents with other Royal Colleges, establishing international collaborations and defining service specifications. We emphasise the importance of collaboration with other medical organisations, and describe successes and pitfalls.
Much has been achieved but challenges remain. Liaison psychiatry has a potentially important role in improving patient care. It needs to adapt to the requirements of the current National Health Service, marshal evidence for cost-effectiveness and persuade healthcare commissioners to fund services that are appropriate for the psychological needs of general hospital patients.
Our knowledge of the universe comes from recording the photon and particle fluxes incident on the Earth from space. We thus require sensitive measurement across the entire energy spectrum, using large telescopes with efficient instrumentation located on superb sites. Technological advances and engineering constraints are nearing the point where we are recording as many photons arriving at a site as is possible. Major advances in the future will come from improving the quality of the site. The ultimate site is, of course, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, such as on the Moon, but economic limitations prevent our exploiting this avenue to the degree that the scientific community desires. Here we describe an alternative, which offers many of the advantages of space for a fraction of the cost: the Antarctic Plateau.
During the 1970s, agitation for political reform remained muted amongst the local population in Hong Kong, and no substantive political leadership emerged from within that population to promote such reform. This was partly due to the fact that the local community and its leaders had been kept out of governance and executive authority by the colonial regime for so long that they had become habituated to that circumstance. However, it was also partly because, by the 1970s, the colonial regime was administering Hong Kong fairly well. Following the confrontation of the late 1960s some action had been taken against corruption through the inauguration of the Independent Commission against Corruption in 1974. The rule of law remained sovereign, and largely independent of government. Necessary if still inadequate welfare reforms had been enacted. Social stability now seemed reasonably assured, and the colonial government was finally proving more responsive to the needs of the population. By the mid-1970s Hong Kong was also becoming incrementally more prosperous, and the evidence suggests that this led large sections of the local population to preoccupy themselves more with matters related to family situation and pecuniary advantage than with suffrage. Of course, the colonial presence was still widely resented, but the small-government model which prevailed meant the local community did not have to encounter its existence too recurrently. If that presence also created the framework for local business to succeed, and wealth to accumulate, as seemed to be the case, then the local community were prepared to tolerate it.
Colonial film-making, in the guise of British official film-making, as opposed to the early entrepreneurial British/US/French film-making of the 1898– 1914 period, developed slowly in Hong Kong over the period from 1945 to the abolition of the Hong Kong Film Unit (HKFU) in 1973; and, in order to understand the reasons for that slow progression it will first be necessary to consider some problems and impediments that had already developed prior to and during the Second World War, problems which were related to an antagonism between a ‘Colonial Office’ (CO) and ‘Griersonian’ tradition. The term ‘Griersonian’ is often used as an abbreviation for the British documentary film movement of the 1930s and 1940s. There are problems associated with such abbreviation, principally, that the movement as a whole becomes subsumed under the name of its leader: John Grierson. Nevertheless, in order to be terminologically concise, and in the absence of suitable alternative terminology, the term ‘Griersonian’ will be employed here, but in a global sense, not to refer to matters very close to Grierson himself, but to the tradition of the British documentary film movement as a whole. Such employment is warranted here because this chapter is to a considerable extent concerned with an opposition between a general ‘Griersonian’ and ‘CO’ approach to official film-making. Put succinctly, if epigrammatically, the Griersonian approach involves making documentary films which attempt to advance the progress of democratic-liberal development across a broad filmic front, whilst the CO approach involves the production of much simpler films which make specific, pragmatic interventions, usually in order to consolidate a more conservative status quo.
Although established in 1970 Radio Hong Kong Television (RHKTV) did not produce anything that year, and, by 1971, the unit was still only producing some short information bulletins derived from Government Information Services (GIS) sources. The unit did not actually become fully operational until 1972, when it moved into new studios made ready for it at the new Radio Hong Kong (RHK) centre, Broadcasting House, in the Kowloon Tong area of Kowloon. However, although RHKTV was able to develop its own news bulletins from late 1972, the unit did not succeed in freeing itself entirely from dependence upon well-established GIS sources, and this situation continued after the founding of Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK) in 1976. It was, apparently, not until the early 1980s that RTHK developed full editorial autonomy over its news broadcasting. RHKTV, under Controller, Television, James Hawthorne, began to recruit staff from 1971. In 1973 RHKTV began to broadcast its first film series, Home in Hong Kong. Broadcast once a week on the platforms of the two commercial broadcasters, Home in Hong Kong lasted for half an hour, and, with its magazine format, can be regarded as successor to the Hong Kong Film Unit's Hong Kong Today, a newsreel programme which was screened in the cinema rather than broadcast on television. Home in Hong Kong was released predominantly in Chinese, and remade in English-language version on a few occasions. The series lasted only a few years and was eventually replaced in 1977–8 – after RHKTV had become part of RTHK – by a currentaffairs series which still runs in the present day.
The six documentaries selected in this chapter for closer discussion and analysis in relation to the development of the independent documentary genre in Hong Kong over the past thirty years have been chosen on the basis of their merits as films. They are: Ed Kong's Rising Sun (1980); Evans Chan's Journey to Beijing (1998); Tammy Cheung's Rice Distribution (2003); Anson Mak's One Way Street on a Turntable (2007); Cheung King-wai's KJ: Music and Life (2008); and Louisa Wei's Storm under the Sun (2011). The films also offer a cross-section of diverse directorial styles and documentary categories, covering most types according to Nichols's basic typology – expository, reflexive, interactive, observational, poetic and performative, with their varying implications with reference to truth claims. At the same time, they correspond to a small spectrum of approaches, whether essayistic, detached, polemical, more conventionally quasi-objective or mixed-mode. All six films have earned critical plaudits in varying contexts, mainly in film festivals, but two of them – Rising Sun and KJ: Music and Life – were also commercially successful in Hong Kong, and gave cautious grounds for optimism regarding the future viability of the documentary genre in the city.
RISING SUN (ED KONG, 1980)
At a time when very few documentaries were being made in Hong Kong, the success of Rising Sun surprised even the director, Edwin Kong, who was born and raised in Hong Kong, but made the film while living in the United States.
This chapter provides a general overview of the independent documentary films produced in Hong Kong from the early 1970s up to and including the early years of the second decade of the new millennium. It is intended both as a background to and a comprehensive perspective of the field of independent, non-broadcast documentary practice in the contemporary era, enabling the reader to form a clear picture of the various strands of development over a vibrant and often turbulent forty-year period in the city's history; this includes, of course, the 1997 transfer of sovereignty to China and the relatively short but fertile period of post-colonial non-fiction film creativity.
By sharp contrast with the government-sponsored and television company-driven initiatives of previous decades, the independent sector that emerged in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, while being very much preoccupied with Hong Kong's present and future state and status, was somewhat reminiscent of the early Hong Kong independent film work of Lai Man-wai in its relative freedom from institutional control. This factor has been of crucial importance in the emergence of a small but expanding and lively documentary film practice in the city, which, to judge by the work of both established practitioners and newer voices, has impinged on the critical attentions of both local and global audiences and commentators. The overview offered in the present chapter will provide a platform for exploring a number of specific and significant films by major contemporary practitioners in the final chapter.
These guys who advocate for Hong Kong independence are sheer morons. Deprived of support from the mainland, Hong Kong will be a dead city. Where do they think the water comes from?
By the time of the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939 the British Government had already come to the conclusion that Hong Kong could not be defended against expected attack by Japan. The most that could be hoped for, given the then improved relationship with China, one that is also signalled in The Battle of Shanghai, was that, if such an attack were to occur, China might help to delay the inevitable collapse of the colony by providing temporary military support. The object here was not, therefore, to save Hong Kong at all but to make the eventual fall of the colony appear less precipitous and chastening. To this end, in the summer of 1941 the British and Chinese governments reached an agreement whereby Chinese forces would engage any Japanese militias attacking Hong Kong. On 7 December 1941 Japanese aircraft attacked the American air base at Pearl Harbour, bringing the United States into the Second World War. Four hours after that assault began Japanese bombers struck Hong Kong and Japanese ground troops also began an advance on the territory from the southern Guangdong area. Under the terms of the agreement reached with Britain Chiang Kai-shek then ordered Chinese forces south to engage the Japanese in and around Guangzhou in order to open up a new front, and slow down the assault on the colony. However, the speed of the Japanese advance was such that Hong Kong fell before the Chinese army ever reached Guangzhou.
In short, despite appearances, so to speak, documentary has a power, if not directly to reveal the invisible, nonetheless to speak of things that orthodoxy and conservatism, power and authority, would rather we didn't know and didn't think about. And this is exactly why we need it.
Chanan's timely reminder why a thriving documentary practice is important in any civilised society relates to his experience of documentary-making during the vicious civil war fuelled by the United States government during the 1980s in El Salvador. However, it also applies to the Hong Kong situation, even if the conditions for making documentaries in Hong Kong and around the region are not usually so hazardous. Bearing in mind the inevitable convergence between Hong Kong and China, culminating in the 2047 date for complete reintegration, it is essential for Hong Kong to build on the strong recent developments in independent film, as well as encouraging new digital online platforms for documentaries, which both democratise the form and contribute to a healthy and diverse public discourse on socio-political matters. As Chris Berry has observed in relation to independent film-makers in general and Tammy Cheung's documentaries in particular:
If we apply a broader definition, including documentary, short films and animation, it may be more accurate to consider the cinema of Hong Kong as undergoing a transformation. The development of Tammy Cheung's career as an independent documentarian is a part of this glass half-full/half-empty situation.
Described as the 'lost genre', the tradition of documentary film making in Hong Kong is far less known than its martial arts films. However documentary film has always existed in Hong Kong and often represents its troubled relationship to itself, China and the west. Including the period of colonial film-making, the high points of television documentary and the tradition of independent documentary film-making, this book presents a comprehensive study of this lost genre. It explores the role of public-service television (including representations of the massacre at Tiananmen Square) and presents critical analysis of key films.
This book is one outcome of a programme of research that began in 2007. The research was funded by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council and took the shape of four consecutive research projects, of which I was principal investigator. The research covered areas such as Hong Kong independent documentary film, the colonial film units of Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaya, and the influence of the British official film; and all of these areas are also covered in this book to one extent or another. The research programme is also still ongoing, developing pace and changing direction, and, as I write now, in May 2013, it is outspreading to cover South-East and South Asia. An extensive set of research associations is being nurtured, and a major new website covering these areas has also been put into operation. A dedicated conference on these areas will also be held in Hong Kong in September 2013. This will also be the third conference to be associated with this research programme. In many ways, therefore, the work that is represented by this book, though itself the product of considerable research activity covering a number of years, is about to reach a new level of extension and involvement.
I began to explore the documentary film in Hong Kong shortly after my arrival in the city from the UK in 2003. In order to commence, I first carried out preliminary research intended to clarify whether sufficient information and data existed to justify launching a later, large-scale research project on the subject.
Hong Kong entered the orbit of British imperial power when that power was almost at its zenith in the middle of the nineteenth century. The manner of entry was also a particularly violent, and in some ways also atypical, one. At that point in time the British Empire was expanding across the world out of the older eighteenth-century mercantile imperium, in search of new trading opportunities elsewhere. At the same time, imperial strategy was moving away from the formal annexation of new territories to the establishment of trading settlements, some of which also doubled as strategic military outposts. The older, more ruthless mercantilist approach, in which a conquered country's markets would be deployed to the advantage of the metropole, and that country then be forced to import goods from said metropole, generated inevitable hostility amongst subject populations, and, in addition, and most importantly from the point of view of the British Treasury, finally proved to be overly expensive to maintain.
By the mid-nineteenth century British imperialist officials and traders had largely moved on from this subjugation-mercantilist model to one based on adherence to the principles of ‘free trade’, and the establishment of trading settlements and arrangements based – usually quite loosely – on such principles. Now, the primary concern was to ensure that trade could take place ‘fairly’, according to the ‘laws’ of supply and demand, and unhindered by local protectionist obstructions.