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Pelvic fractures are serious injuries, accounting for 20% of deaths due to trauma.1 Most high energy pelvic fractures are due to motor vehicle accidents, including motorcycles, and falls from a significant height. Since these injuries can have major effects on hemodynamics, especially in the setting of multi-trauma, time is of the essence, with focus on early diagnosis and management.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are effective in developed countries. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of an infectious disease (ID) physician–driven post-prescription review and feedback as an ASP strategy in India, a low middle-income country (LMIC).
Design and setting:
This prospective cohort study was carried out for 18 months in 2 intensive care units of a tertiary-care hospital, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, intervention, and follow up. Each phase spanned 6 months.
Patients aged ≥15 years receiving 48 hours of study antibiotics were recruited for the study.
During the intervention phase, an ID physician reviewed the included cases and gave alternate recommendations if the antibiotic use was inappropriate. Acceptance of the recommendations was measured after 48 hours. The primary outcome of the study was days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 study patient days (PD).
Overall, 401 patients were recruited in the baseline phase, 381 patients were recruited in the intervention phase, and 379 patients were recruited in the follow-up phase. Antimicrobial use decreased from 831.5 during the baseline phase to 717 DOT per 1,000 PD in the intervention phase (P < .0001). The effect was sustained in the follow-up phase (713.6 DOT per 1,000 PD). De-escalation according to culture susceptibility improved significantly in the intervention phase versus the baseline phase (42.7% vs 23.6%; P < .0001). Overall, 73.3% of antibiotic prescriptions were inappropriate. Recommendations by the ID team were accepted in 60.7% of the cases.
The ID physician–driven implementation of an ASP was successful in reducing antibiotic utilization in an acute-care setting in India.
Cyanosis in a newborn is commonly due to intracardiac shunts or duct-dependent lesions. Systemic venous anomalies are uncommon and sinus venous atrial septal defects do not usually present with cyanosis. We report the case of a 4-month-old female with persistent hypoxemia due to a right superior vena cava overriding a superior sinus venous atrial septal defect resulting in a right to left shunt.
Previous studies reported an association between advanced paternal age at birth and increased risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. While some hypothesize that this association is caused by de-novo mutations in paternal spermatozoa, others cite factors associated with psycho-social characteristics of fathers who have children at a late age. This study aims to test these hypotheses.
A historical-prospective, population-based cohort study, performed by linking the Israeli Draft Board Registry and the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Registry (N = 916 439; 4488 with schizophrenia, 883 with bipolar disorder). Odds ratios (OR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models, using paternal age as predictor and risk for later hospitalizations for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder as outcome measure. Models were first fitted unadjusted, then adjusted for paternal age at birth of the first child.
In the unadjusted model, offspring of fathers aged 45 and above at birth had increased risk of schizophrenia (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.49–1.99) and bipolar disorder (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.16–2.24). However, taking into account paternal age at birth of first child, advanced paternal age was no longer associated with increased risk of schizophrenia (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.48–0.79) or bipolar disorder (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.56–1.90).
Controlling for paternal age at birth of the first offspring, advanced paternal age does not predict increased risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. These data indicate that the association between advanced paternal age and having an offspring with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is likely due to psychos-social factors, or common genetic variation associated with delayed initial fatherhood.
This work reports the synthesis of undoped and alkali metal doped thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films by sol-gel spin coating and subsequent low-temperature annealing at 450 °C in N2-H2 atmosphere. The effect of sodium and potassium on the phase transition temperature as well as on the solar modulations were investigated. A dopant concentration of 0.3 at% resulted in a reduction of the critical transition temperature (Tc) from 62 °C to 57 °C and 47 °C for the sodium and potassium doped films, respectively. Moreover, both dopants improved the solar modulations (ΔTsol) of the undoped VO2 films from 3.81 to 9.44 and 5.43 %, respectively.
To better understand barriers and facilitators that hinder or help women veterans discuss their alcohol use with providers in primary care in order to better identify problematic drinking and enhance provider–patient communication about harmful drinking.
Women presenting to primary care may be less likely than men to disclose potentially harmful alcohol use. No studies have qualitatively examined the perspectives of primary care providers about factors that affect accurate disclosure of alcohol use by women veterans during routine clinic visits.
Providers (n=14) were recruited from primary care at two veterans Administration Women’s Health Clinics in California, United States. An open-ended interview guide was developed from domains of the consolidated framework for implementation science. Interviews elicited primary care providers’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators to women veterans’ (who may or may not be using alcohol in harmful ways) disclosure of alcohol use during routine clinic visits. Interview data were analyzed deductively using a combination of template analysis and matrix analysis.
Participants reported six barriers and five facilitators that they perceived affect women veteran’s decision to accurately disclose alcohol use during screenings and openness to discussing harmful drinking with a primary care provider. The most commonly described barriers to disclosure were stigma, shame, and discomfort, and co-occuring mental health concerns, while building strong therapeutic relationships and using probes to ‘dig deeper’ were most often described as facilitators. Findings from this study may enhance provider–patient discussions about alcohol use and help primary care providers to better identify problematic drinking among women veterans, ultimately improving patient outcomes.
In 2006, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization Standards recommended a 5-Minute Protocol as a brief screening instrument for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). We report demographically adjusted norms for the 5-Minute Protocol and its relation to other measures of cognitive function and cerebrovascular risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 7199 stroke-free adults in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study on the NINDS-CSN 5-Minute Protocol score. Total scores on the 5-Minute Protocol were inversely correlated with age and positively correlated with years of education, and performance on the Six-Item Screener, Word List Learning, and Animal Fluency (all p-values <.001). Higher cerebrovascular risk on the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) was associated with lower total 5-Minute Protocol scores (p <.001). The 5-Minute Protocol also differentiated between participants with and without confirmed stroke and with and without stroke symptom histories (p <.001). The NINDS-CSN 5-Minute Protocol is a brief, easily administered screening measure that is sensitive to cerebrovascular risk and offers a valid method of screening for cognitive impairment in populations at risk for VCI. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–12)
Acute care physicians are frequently faced with diagnosing and treating orthopedic emergencies with limited resources and without immediate specialist availability. Orthopedic Emergencies focuses on the acute management and stabilization of orthopedic injuries with specific recommendations on procedures and the stabilization of fractures and dislocation. The topics are organized anatomically with additional chapters on Procedures, Reduction Techniques, and Immobilization and Splinting. The information needed for a rapid diagnosis is available instantly through the bullet-point-style text, diagrams, images, pearls and pitfalls. There are specific recommendations on which splint to apply and how to position the affected limb, as well as advice on when to arrange follow up with an orthopedist or sports medicine physician. The spiral binding allows the book to lay flat for easy use at the bedside, making Orthopedic Emergencies the ideal companion for all emergency medicine providers including emergency department physicians, sports clinics, family medicine practitioners and mid-level providers.
This chapter presents the key facts, mechanism, anatomy, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of pelvic fractures e.g. avulsion fractures, and non-displaced pelvic fractures such as pubic ramis fractures, ischial body fractures, ilium fractures, sacral fractures, coccyx fractures, displaced pelvic fractures, acetabular fractures and hip fractures. Pelvic fractures represent 3% of all fractures, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate for high-energy pelvic fractures is between 10% and 20%. The pelvis consists of the ilium and pubis, and the ilium on each side forming the innominate bones that are then joined at the pubis symphysis anteriorly and the sacrum posteriorly. Fractures involving a single pubic ramis are usually caused by a fall in the elderly, though in the young it is often the result of persistent tension/stress on the adductors or hamstrings resulting in a fracture at their site of origination.
This chapter presents the key facts, diagnostic testing, treatments, and prognosis of various types of hand and wrist fractures such as distal radius fracture, distal radioulnar joint disruption (DRUJ), carpal bone fractures, metacarpal bone fractures, phalangeal bone fractures, and distal phalanx fracture. Distal radius and ulnar injuries are often associated with median and ulnar neuropathies. A transverse fracture of the distal radial metaphysis with dorsal displacement and angulation, often caused by a fall on an outstretched hand. The lateral radiograph is the best view for revealing an intra-articular fracture of the radius and any associated carpal displacement in Barton fractures. A posteroanterior (PA) radiograph often shows a comminuted fracture of the distal radius. Barton fractures require emergency orthopedic/hand-specialist consultation for early operative management. Non-displaced Hutchinson fractures can be managed with a short-arm splint and routine orthopedic/hand-specialist follow-up.
Purulent bacterial pericarditis is an uncommon infection that manifests during childhood, and in the post-antibiotic era Streptococcus pneumoniae is an unusual cause. We report a case of purulent bacterial pericarditis in a neonate caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 7F. Although cases of bacterial pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as a causative agent have been reported, their combination in a neonate is unique and this is, to our knowledge, the first case of this combination in the newborn period.
A 1,000-bed tertiary-care university teaching hospital.
Retrospectively, all relevant data were collected from the medical records of patients with CRKP infections from May 2006 through April 2007, the preintervention period. From May 1, 2007, through May 1, 2010, the postintervention period, the intervention was applied and prospectively followed. The 5 key elements of this strategy were an emergency department flagging system, the building of a cohort ward, the eradication of clusters, environmental and personnel hand cultures, and a carbapenem-restriction policy. The demographic and clinical parameters of patients colonized by and/or infected with CRKP were collected from medical records.
A total of 10,680 rectal cultures were performed for 8,376 patients; 433 (5.16%) and 370 (4.4%) were CRKP-colonized and CRKP-infected patients, respectively, and 789 (98%) of 803 patients were admitted to the CRKP cohort ward. The CRKP infection density was reduced from 5.26 to 0.18 per 10,000 patient-days (P<.001), and no nosocomial CRKP infections were diagnosed. Twenty-three percent of environmental cultures were found to be positive. Meropenem use was reduced from 283 ± 70.92 to 118 ± 74.32 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days (P<.001).
This intervention produced an enormous impact on patient location, surveillance cultures, and antibiotic policies and a massive investment in infection control resources.
For development and integration of Si nanowires into nanoelectronic devices, an understanding of Ni silicide formation in electrical contacts to Si nanowires is necessary. Here, we examine the kinetics of Ni silicide phase formation. For Si nanowires with  growth directions, NiSi2 is the only phase to form in the temperature range 400–550 °C, and the NiSi2 growth exhibits linear kinetics from 400 to 500 °C with an activation energy of 0.76 ± 0.10 eV. In the case of Si nanowires with  growth directions, growth of the θ-Ni2Si phase in contact with the Si nanowire occurs with parabolic kinetics over the temperature range 400–550 °C, and an activation energy of 1.45 ± 0.07 eV/atom is extracted. Differences in the growth rates for Ni silicide phases with different SiNW growth directions implies that for simultaneous preparation of SiNW devices with Ni silicide contacts, SiNWs with the same growth direction are necessary.