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Dealing with major incidents requires an immediate and coordinated response by multiple organizations. Communicating and coordinating over multiple geographical locations and organizations is a complex process. One of the greatest challenges is patient tracking and tracing. Often, data about the number of victims, their condition, location and transport is lacking. This hinders an effective response and causes public distress. To address this problem, a Victim Tracing and Tracking system (ViTTS) was developed.
An online ViTTS was developed based on a wireless network with routers on ambulances, and direct online registration of victims and their triage data through barcode injury cards. The system was tested for feasibility and usability during disaster drills.
The formation of a local radio network of hotspots with mobile routers and connection over General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) to the central database worked well. ViTTS produced accurately stored data, real-time availability, and a real-time overview of the patients (number, seriousness of injury, and location).
The ViTTS provides a system for early, unique registration of victims close to the impact site. Online application and connection of the various systems used by the different chains in disaster relief promotes interoperability and enables patient tracking and tracing. It offers a real-time overview of victims to all involved disaster relief partners, which is necessary to generate an adequate disaster response.
MarresGMH, TaalL, BemelmanM, BoumanJ, LeenenLPH. Online Victim Tracking and Tracing System (ViTTS) for Major Incident Casualties. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(4):1-9.
A low temperature amorphous zinc indium oxide (ZIO) thin film transistor (TFT) backplane technology for high information content flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed. We have fabricated 4.1-in. diagonal OLED backplanes on the Flexible Display Center’s six-inch wafer-scale pilot line using ZIO as the active layer. The ZIO based TFTs exhibited an effective saturation mobility of 18.6 cm2/V-s and a threshold voltage shift of 2.2 Volts or less under positive and negative gate bias DC stress for 10000 seconds. We report on the critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process: the qualification of the low temperature (200°C) ZIO process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication of white organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays.
Principal challenges to direct fabrication of high performance a-Si:H transistor arrays on flexible substrates include automated handling through bonding-debonding processes, substrate-compatible low temperature fabrication processes, management of dimensional instability of plastic substrates, and planarization and management of CTE mismatch for stainless steel foils. In collaboration with our industrial and academic partners, we have developed viable solutions to address these challenges, as described in this paper.
Critics argue that shelf registration greatly reduces the ability of underwriters to perform adequate due diligence. This argument suggests underwriters will demand greater compensation for shelf issues compared to such traditional issues as an insurance premium for protection against potential litigation or loss of reputation caused by inadequate due diligence. Our findings suggest the presence of such a premium, that the premium is higher for firms with higher expected due diligence liabilities, and that underwriters perceive that shelf registration erodes due diligence and, subsequently, price the due diligence erosion accordingly. This pricing behavior is consistent with our findings that firms with higher expected due diligence liabilities are more likely to choose traditional registration.
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