To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Antibiotic use without a prescription (nonprescription use) leads to antibiotic overuse, with negative consequences for patient and public health. We studied whether screening patients for prior nonprescription antibiotic use in the past 12 months predicted their intentions to use them in the future. Methods: A survey asking respondents about prior and intended nonprescription antibiotic use was performed between January 2020 and June 2021 among patients in waiting rooms of 6 public clinics and 2 private emergency departments in economically and socially diverse urban and suburban areas. Respondents were classified as prior nonprescription users if they reported previously taking oral antibiotics without contacting a doctor, dentist, or nurse. Intended use was defined as answering “yes” or “maybe” to the question, “Would you use antibiotics without contacting a doctor, nurse, or dentist?” We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) of prior nonprescription antibiotic use in the past 12 months for future intended nonprescription use. Bayes PPV and NPV were also calculated, considering the prevalence of nonprescription antibiotic use (24.8%) in our study. Results: Of the 564 patients surveyed, the median age was 51 years (SD, 19–92), with 72% of patients identifying as female. Most were from the public healthcare system (72.5%). Most respondents identified as Hispanic or Latino(a) (47%) or African American (33%), and 57% received Medicaid or the county financial assistance program. Prior nonprescription use was reported by 246 (43%) of 564 individuals, with 91 (16%) reporting nonprescription use within the previous 12 months. Intention to use nonprescription antibiotics was reported by 140 participants (25%). The sensitivity and specificity of prior nonprescription use in the past 12 months to predict the intention to use nonprescription antibiotics in the future were 75.9% (95% CI, 65.3–84.6) and 91.4% (95% CI, 87.8–94.2), respectively. After the Bayes’ adjustment, the PPV and NPV of prior use to predict future intention were 74.5% (95% CI, 66.7–80.9) and 92.0% (95% CI, 88.7–94.4) (Table 1). Conclusions: These results show that prior nonprescription antibiotic use in the past 12 months predicted the intention to use nonprescription antibiotics in the future (PPV of 75%). As a stewardship effort, we suggest clinicians use a simple question about prior nonprescription antibiotic use in primary-care settings as a screening question for patients at high risk for future nonprescription antibiotic use.
Background: Nonprescription antibiotic use includes taking an antibiotic without medical guidance (eg, leftover antibiotics, antibiotics from friends or relatives, or antibiotics purchased without a prescription). Nonprescription use contributes to antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug reactions, interactions, and superinfections such as Clostridioides difficile colitis. Qualitative studies exploring perspectives regarding nonprescription use among Hispanic patients are lacking. We used the Kilbourne Framework for Advancing Health Disparities Research to identify factors influencing Hispanic patients’ nonprescription use and to organize our findings. Methods: Our study includes Hispanic primary-care clinic patients with different types of health coverage in the Houston metroplex who endorsed nonprescription use in a previous quantitative survey. Semistructured interviews explored the factors promoting nonprescription use in Hispanic adults. Interviews were conducted remotely, in English or Spanish, between May 2020 and October 2021. We used inductive coding and thematic analysis to identify the factors and motives for nonprescription use. Results: Of the 35 Hispanic participants surveyed, 69% were female and between the ages of 27 and 66. All participants had some form of healthcare coverage (eg, Medicare or private insurance, Medicaid, or the county financial assistance program). Participants reported obtaining antibiotics from their own leftover prescriptions and through trusted persons (eg, herbalists, pharmacists, friends/relatives, and others), buying them under the counter in US markets, and purchasing them without a prescription outside the United States. Thematic analysis revealed the factors contributing to nonprescription use (Fig. 1). Themes included beliefs that the ‘doctor visit was unnecessary,’ ‘limited direct access to healthcare’ in the United States (due to limited insurance coverage, high costs of the doctor’s visits and medications, and long clinic wait times), ‘more open indirect access to healthcare’ abroad and under the counter in the United States, and communication difficulties (eg, language barriers with clinicians, perceived staff rudeness, and gaps in health literacy). Figure 2 shows representative quotes across thematic domains. Participants expressed having confidence in medical recommendations from pharmacists and trusted community members in their social networks. Conclusions: Antibiotic stewardship interventions that include pharmacist-driven patient education regarding appropriate antibiotic use may decrease nonprescription antibiotic use in Hispanic communities. Additionally, improving access to care while addressing communication barriers and cultural competency in clinics may improve primary care delivery and reduce potentially unsafe antibiotic use.
The Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative aims to decrease new HIV infections and promote test-and-treat strategies. Our aims were to establish a baseline of HIV outcomes among newly diagnosed PWH in Washington, DC (DC), a ‘hotspot’ for the HIV epidemic. We also examined sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with retention in care (RIC), antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and viral suppression (VS) among newly diagnosed PWH in the DC Cohort from 2011–2016. Among 455 newly diagnosed participants, 92% were RIC at 12 months, ART was initiated in 65% at 3 months and 91% at 12 months, VS in at least 17% at 3 months and 82% at 12 months and 55% of those with VS at 12 months had sustained VS for an additional 12 months. AIDS diagnosis was associated with RIC (aOR 2.99; 1.13–2.28), ART initiation by 3 months (aOR 2.58; 1.61–4.12) and VS by 12 months (aOR4.87; 1.69–14.03). This analysis contributes to our understanding of the HIV treatment dynamics of persons with recently diagnosed HIV infection in a city with a severe HIV epidemic.
Little is known about the early history of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), including the timing and circumstances of its introduction into new cultural environments. To evaluate its spatio-temporal spread across Eurasia and north-west Africa, the authors radiocarbon dated 23 chicken bones from presumed early contexts. Three-quarters returned dates later than those suggested by stratigraphy, indicating the importance of direct dating. The results indicate that chickens did not arrive in Europe until the first millennium BC. Moreover, a consistent time-lag between the introduction of chickens and their consumption by humans suggests that these animals were initially regarded as exotica and only several centuries later recognised as a source of ‘food’.
Background: Taking antibiotics outside the guidance of a clinician (nonprescription use) is a potential safety issue and runs counter to antibiotic stewardship efforts. We identified the symptoms and illnesses and situations that may predispose patients to take antibiotics, and we compared these findings between patients attending public primary care clinics and private emergency departments. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January 2020 and March 2021 in 6 primary care clinics and 2 emergency departments in the United States. We queried patients about 5 symptoms and illnesses (Fig. 1) and 14 situations (Fig. 2) to investigate whether these would lead the patients to take antibiotics without a prescription. We used the χ2 test to compare the symptoms and illnesses and situations between the respondents from public and private healthcare systems. We set the P value for significance at <.025. Results: In total, the survey had 564 respondents (median age, 49.7 years; range, 19–92), and 72% were female. Most respondents identified as either Hispanic or Latina/Latino (46.6%) or African American or Black (33%), followed by White (15.8%), and other (4.6%). Most respondents had visited public clinics (72%). The most common insurance status for our respondents included Medicaid or county financial assistance program (56.6%), followed by private insurance or Medicare (36.7%) and self-pay (6.7%). In public primary care clinics, only 23% had private insurance or Medicare compared to 72.9% in private emergency departments. Of those surveyed, 69% agreed that antibiotics would improve the recovery from sinus infections, followed by bronchitis (64%), sore throat (64%), cold/flu (61.4%), and diarrhea (31.5%). The proportions of respondents who believed that antibiotics would improve the recovery from diarrhea (36.2% vs 19.4%; P = .004) and sore throat (59.9% vs 48.4%; P < .001) were significantly higher among public versus private outpatient respondents. We did not find significant differences for cold/flu, sinus infection, or bronchitis between these 2 healthcare systems (Fig. 1). In 11 of the 14 situations, patients in public clinics were more likely to report a likelihood of using nonprescription antibiotics than the patients visiting the private emergency rooms (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Future stewardship interventions should be aware of the symptoms and illnesses and situations that may influence outpatients to take nonprescription antibiotics. Addressing modifiable factors (eg, leftover antibiotics, antibiotics given by friends or family, and antibiotics available without a prescription in stores or markets) may also curtail these unsafe practices and reduce antibiotic resistance.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
Examining social networks, characterized by interpersonal interactions across family, peer, school, and neighborhoods, offer alternative explanations to suicidal behaviors and shape effective suicide prevention. This study examines adolescent social networks predicting suicide ideation and attempt trajectories transitioning to adulthood, while revealing differences across racial/ethnic, sex, sexual identity, and socioeconomic status.
Participants included 9421 high school students (Mage = 15.30 years; 54.58% females, baseline) from Waves I–IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, 1994–2008. Latent class growth analyses were conducted to identify suicide ideation and attempt trajectories. Multivariate multinomial logistic regressions examined the relationships between social network characteristics during adolescence and suicidal trajectories. Interaction terms between social networks and sociodemographic characteristics were included to test moderation effects.
Three suicidal ideation trajectories (low-stable, high-decreasing, moderate-decreasing-increasing) and two suicide attempt trajectories (low-stable, moderate-decreasing) were identified. Greater family cohesion significantly reduced the probability of belonging to high-decreasing (Trajectory 2) and moderate-decreasing-increasing (Trajectory 3) suicidal ideation trajectories, and moderate-decreasing (Trajectory 2) suicide attempt trajectory. Race/ethnicity, sex, and sexual identity significantly moderated the associations between social networks (household size, peer network density, family cohesion, peer support, neighborhood support) and suicidal trajectories.
Social networks during adolescence influenced the odds of belonging to distinct suicidal trajectories. Family cohesion protected youth from being in high-risk developmental courses of suicidal behaviors. Social networks, especially quality of interactions, may improve detecting adolescents and young adults at-risk for suicide behaviors. Network-based interventions are key to prevent suicidal behaviors over time and suicide intervention programming.
Since at least the obsessive scrutiny afforded to Abraham Zapruder’s home movie of the Kennedy assassination, the notion that a conspiracy theory could reveal secret knowledge has become increasingly intertwined with the concept of technology. When the stakes are raised by apocalyptic overtones, these conspiracy theories perform a complex dance of obfuscation and revelation. The techno-conspiracy – a hermeneutic model in which technology functions as both the means of revelation and the thing-to-be-revealed – speaks loudly to modernity through its fixation on the anxiety of what comes next. This chapter examines 9/11 as a wellspring of both apocalyptic trauma and contemporary techno-conspiracies. Its centerpiece is a discussion of Dr. Judy Wood’s remarkable 9/11 conspiracy theory about directed-energy weapons. It is my contention that Wood’s theories reveal a complex nexus of anxieties over the American technological regime: from urban technologies, such as skyscrapers, to media technologies to the legacy of the atomic bomb. It also reveals the workings of a poignant fantasy about energy in a time of ecological crisis.
MRSA continues to spread in hospitals, despite modest recent success. Gaps exist regarding how hospital policies impact MRSA transmission in hospitals. Characterization of the policy environment has been useful in approaching other public health issues including control of alcohol, firearms, tobacco, and traffic safety. Objective: Our goal was to describe measurable and modifiable policy components designed to prevent MRSA in hospital settings. Methods: We examined 4 types of hospital policies from 5 metropolitan hospitals in Minnesota: hand hygiene, multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) and isolation, healthcare personnel influenza vaccination, and whistleblower (corporate compliance). We developed a tool to systematically evaluate policies for each topic that included 19–23 instructional and implementation elements guided by regulatory and clinical practice guidelines: purpose, expectations, education and training, monitoring, enforcement, corrective actions, responsibilities, and corrective actions. Each policy element was evaluated for its presence (yes or no) and thoroughness (nonexistent = 0, cursory = 1, thorough = 2). Results: All hospitals had hand hygiene and MDRO and isolation policies; 3 of 5 had influenza and whistleblower policies. The policies varied in comprehensiveness and thoroughness across hospitals and topics. Most policies included purpose and policy statements with a statement of organizational rules (14 of 16 and 16 of 16, respectively) with mean thoroughness scores of 1.04 and 1.20, respectively. Most policies lacked consequences for noncompliance (6 of 16), accountability (6 of 16), and monitoring and enforcement of policy expectations (5 of 16). When included, the policy components scored low for thoroughness, and 50% of policies (8 of 16; range, 20% for hand hygiene and 100% for influenza vaccination) specified expectations for educating staff about the policy topic, with a mean thoroughness score of 0.75. Responsibilities for policy expectations were lacking: responsibilities for product needs and availability (3 of 13), training and education (1 of 16); and monitoring compliance with skills and techniques (4 of 16). Of the 4 policy types, influenza vaccination was the most complete. All influenza policies had 50% of categories completed versus hand hygiene (26%), MDRO (17%), and whistleblower (26%). The hand hygiene policies scored highest for thoroughness; 48% of policy elements scored >1.0 versus MDRO (22%), influenza (25%), and whistleblower (11%). Conclusions: We developed a systematic method to quantitatively evaluate hospital policies. Our review of hospital policies most commonly contained thorough instructional elements such as organizational requirements and protocols and procedures. Policies often lacked implementation elements such as expectations for monitoring, enforcement, responsibilities, accountabilities, and staff training and education. As we begin to characterize policy, endogenous in nature, as a potential exposure, it is important that we develop rigorous measurement. We have provided a first step in developing such an approach.
It is not clear to what extent associations between schizophrenia, cannabis use and cigarette use are due to a shared genetic etiology. We, therefore, examined whether schizophrenia genetic risk associates with longitudinal patterns of cigarette and cannabis use in adolescence and mediating pathways for any association to inform potential reduction strategies.
Associations between schizophrenia polygenic scores and longitudinal latent classes of cigarette and cannabis use from ages 14 to 19 years were investigated in up to 3925 individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mediation models were estimated to assess the potential mediating effects of a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes.
The schizophrenia polygenic score, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms meeting a training-set p threshold of 0.05, was associated with late-onset cannabis use (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.08,1.41), but not with cigarette or early-onset cannabis use classes. This association was not mediated through lower IQ, victimization, emotional difficulties, antisocial behavior, impulsivity, or poorer social relationships during childhood. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for genetic liability to cannabis or cigarette use, using polygenic scores excluding the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster, or basing scores on a 0.5 training-set p threshold, provided results consistent with our main analyses.
Our study provides evidence that genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with patterns of cannabis use during adolescence. Investigation of pathways other than the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes examined here is required to identify modifiable targets to reduce the public health burden of cannabis use in the population.
To utilise a community-based participatory approach in the design and implementation of an intervention targeting diet-related health problems on Navajo Nation.
A dual strategy approach of community needs/assets assessment and engagement of cross-sectorial partners in programme design with systematic cyclical feedback for programme modifications.
Navajo Nation, USA.
Navajo families with individuals meeting criteria for programme enrolment. Participant enrolment increased with iterative cycles.
The Navajo Fruit and Vegetable Prescription (FVRx) Programme.
A broad, community-driven and culturally relevant programme design has resulted in a programme able to maintain core programmatic principles, while also allowing for flexible adaptation to changing needs.
To investigate the manipulation of electromagnetic properties of two-dimensional materials, this effort characterizes charge transfer behavior of colloidal COF-5 (covalent organic framework) in the presence of various metal ions. A series of metal chloride compounds was introduced to COF-5 in solution and solid film phases and the interaction of the material with electromagnetic radiation was monitored across the visible region using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Notable changes were observed, quantified, and discussed for copper (II) chloride (CuCl2), chromium (III) chloride (CrCl3), and iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) with COF-5. Ligand-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge transfer are explored as a possible mechanism for the observed electronic behaviors.
We tracked the relative integration and differentiation among life history traits over the period spanning AD 1800–1999 in the Britannic and Gallic biocultural groups. We found that Britannic populations tended toward greater strategic differentiation, while Gallic populations tended toward greater strategic integration. The dynamics of between-group competition between these two erstwhile rival biocultural groups were hypothesized as driving these processes. We constructed a latent factor that specifically sought to measure between-group competition and residualized it for the logarithmic effects of time. We found a significantly asymmetrical impact of between-group competition, where the between-group competition factor appeared to be driving the diachronic integration in Gallic populations but had no significantly corresponding influence on the parallel process of diachronic differentiation in Britannic populations. This suggests that the latter process was attributable to some alternative and unmeasured causes, such as the resource abundance consequent to territorial expansion rather than contraction.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide, with lifetime prevalence in the United States of 17%. Here we present the results of the first prospective, large-scale, patient- and rater-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the clinical importance of achieving congruence between combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing and medication selection for MDD.
1,167 outpatients diagnosed with MDD and an inadequate response to ≥1 psychotropic medications were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) arm or PGx-guided care arm. Combinatorial PGx testing categorized medications in three groups based on the level of gene-drug interactions: use as directed, use with caution, or use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring. Patient assessments were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 and 24. Patients, site raters, and central raters were blinded in both arms until after week 8. In the guided-care arm, physicians had access to the combinatorial PGx test result to guide medication selection. Primary outcomes utilized the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and included symptom improvement (percent change in HAM-D17 from baseline), response (50% decrease in HAM-D17 from baseline), and remission (HAM-D17<7) at the fully blinded week 8 time point. The durability of patient outcomes was assessed at week 24. Medications were considered congruent with PGx test results if they were in the ‘use as directed’ or ‘use with caution’ report categories while medications in the ‘use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring’ were considered incongruent. Patients who started on incongruent medications were analyzed separately according to whether they changed to congruent medications by week8.
At week 8, symptom improvement for individuals in the guided-care arm was not significantly different than TAU (27.2% versus 24.4%, p=0.11). However, individuals in the guided-care arm were more likely than those in TAU to achieve remission (15% versus 10%; p<0.01) and response (26% versus 20%; p=0.01). Remission rates, response rates, and symptom reductions continued to improve in the guided-treatment arm until the 24week time point. Congruent prescribing increased to 91% in the guided-care arm by week 8. Among patients who were taking one or more incongruent medication at baseline, those who changed to congruent medications by week 8 demonstrated significantly greater symptom improvement (p<0.01), response (p=0.04), and remission rates (p<0.01) compared to those who persisted on incongruent medications.
Combinatorial PGx testing improves short- and long-term response and remission rates for MDD compared to standard of care. In addition, prescribing congruency with PGx-guided medication recommendations is important for achieving symptom improvement, response, and remission for MDD patients.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Assurex Health, Inc.
The genetic component of Cannabis Use Disorder may overlap with influences acting more generally on early stages of cannabis use. This paper aims to determine the extent to which genetic influences on the development of cannabis abuse/dependence are correlated with those acting on the opportunity to use cannabis and frequency of use.
A cross-sectional study of 3303 Australian twins, measuring age of onset of cannabis use opportunity, lifetime frequency of cannabis use, and lifetime DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence. A trivariate Cholesky decomposition estimated additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and unique environment (E) contributions to the opportunity to use cannabis, the frequency of cannabis use, cannabis abuse/dependence, and the extent of overlap between genetic and environmental factors associated with each phenotype.
Variance components estimates were A = 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–0.70] and E = 0.36 (95% CI 0.29–0.42) for age of opportunity to use cannabis, A = 0.74 (95% CI 0.66–0.80) and E = 0.26 (95% CI 0.20–0.34) for cannabis use frequency, and A = 0.78 (95% CI 0.65–0.88) and E = 0.22 (95% CI 0.12–0.35) for cannabis abuse/dependence. Opportunity shares 45% of genetic influences with the frequency of use, and only 17% of additive genetic influences are unique to abuse/dependence from those acting on opportunity and frequency.
There are significant genetic contributions to lifetime cannabis abuse/dependence, but a large proportion of this overlaps with influences acting on opportunity and frequency of use. Individuals without drug use opportunity are uninformative, and studies of drug use disorders must incorporate individual exposure to accurately identify aetiology.
There is recent evidence of some degree of shared genetic susceptibility between adult schizophrenia and childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for rare chromosomal variants.
To determine whether there is overlap between common alleles conferring risk of schizophrenia in adults with those that do so for ADHD in children.
We used recently published Psychiatric Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) Consortium (PGC) adult schizophrenia data to define alleles over-represented in people with schizophrenia and tested whether those alleles were more common in 727 children with ADHD than in 2067 controls.
Schizophrenia risk alleles discriminated ADHD cases from controls (P = 1.04 × 104, R2 = 0.45%); stronger discrimination was given by alleles that were risk alleles for both adult schizophrenia and adult bipolar disorder (also derived from a PGC data-set) (P = 9.98 ×10−6, R2 × 0.59%).
This increasing evidence for a small, but significant, shared genetic susceptibility between adult schizophrenia and childhood ADHD highlights the importance of research work across traditional diagnostic boundaries.