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Whenever Lutosławski speaks about his music, he exhibits a Freudian ambivalence of the variety that expresses one idea while being at pains to hide a conflicting one. As Freud explains, an ambivalent attitude involves the desire to perform an act that the subject considers consciously to be taboo while feels unconsciously to be enjoyable. In Lutosławski's case, he refuses to acknowledge any extra-musical content to his music, as if to do so would break the taboo of the absolute. Yet, his words about music belie an unconscious acknowledgement of its power of expression, drama and even narrative. As I have discussed elsewhere, this ambivalence is particularly evident in Tadeusz Kaczyński's published conversations with Lutosławski, especially in an outburst of dismay concerning Kaczyński's interpretation of the Cello Concerto.
I'm horrified to see how one can be carried away by my careless mention of the dramatic conflict between the solo part and the orchestra. I must immediately use the reins on this galloping imagination which prompts you to interpret the work as an illustration to some macabre spectacle.
Later in the same interview, Lutosławski maintains that he views ‘any discourse about the so-called content of a composition with some scepticism’, because to him ‘this content is absent’. Still, in an interview with Irina Nikolska, Lutosławski admits that the term ‘form’ is inadequate to describe his music because it lacks the ‘dramatic and literary implications’ that the Polish word akcja (action) or the English word ‘dramaturgy’ include. While at pains in his interview with Kaczyński to deny music's content, Lutosławski nevertheless lets slip that there are dramatic and literary implications in his music during his interview with Nikolska.
This ambivalence about music's content is also manifest in Kaczyński's interview with Lutosławski concerning the String Quartet of 1964. The composer affirms that his quartet had special significance in his oeuvre, although his reasoning relates to the impossibly fraught concept of the purely musical. Lutosławski mentions the two-movement form (‘the first one less important than the second’), the episodic opening, and the ‘advanced aleatory’, among other technical features, as important practices that he developed again in the Second Symphony and the Cello Concerto.
NASA's microwave observing program for SETI is presented. This strategy is composed of a high sensitivity, narrow frequency coverage, Target Search and a low sensitivity, broad frequency coverage, Sky Survey. The complementary nature of this dual mode search strategy is discussed. An overview is given of ongoing work in the development of the search strategy for the Sky Survey.
Expert knowledge of cardiac malformations is essential for paediatric cardiologists. Current cardiac morphology fellowship teaching format, content, and nomenclature are left up to the discretion of the individual fellowship programmes. We aimed to assess practices and barriers in morphology education, perceived effectiveness of current curricula, and preferences for a standardised fellow morphology curriculum.
A web-based survey was developed de novo and administered anonymously via e-mail to all paediatric cardiology fellowship programme directors and associate directors in the United States of America; leaders were asked to forward the survey to fellows.
A total of 35 directors from 32 programmes (51%) and 66 fellows responded. Curriculum formats varied: 28 (88%) programmes utilised pathological specimens, 25 (78%) invited outside faculty, and 16 (50%) utilised external conferences. Director nomenclature preferences were split – 6 (19%) Andersonian, 8 (25%) Van Praaghian, and 18 (56%) mixed. Barriers to morphology education included time and inconsistent nomenclature. One-third of directors reported that <90% of recent fellow graduates had adequate abilities to apply segmental anatomy, identify associated cardiac lesions, or communicate complex CHD. More structured teaching, protected time, and specimens were suggestions to improve curricula. Almost 75% would likely adopt/utilise an online morphology curriculum.
Cardiac morphology training varies in content and format among fellowships. Inconsistent nomenclature exists, and inadequate morphology knowledge is perceived to contribute to communication failures, both have potential patient safety implications. There is an educational need for a common, online cardiac morphology curriculum that could allow for fellow assessment of competency and contribute to more standardised communication in the field of paediatric cardiology.
Childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) is considered as a risk factor for substance use disorder (SUD). Based on the drinking to cope model, this study investigated the association of two trauma-relevant emotions (shame and sadness) and substance use. Using ecological momentary assessment we compared real-time emotion regulation in situations with high and low intensity of shame and sadness in currently abstinent patients with CAN and lifetime SUD (traumaSUD group), healthy controls with CAN (traumaHC group), and without CAN (nontraumaHC group). Multilevel analysis showed a positive linear relationship between high intensity of both emotions and substance use for all groups. The traumaSUD group showed heightened substance use in low, as well as in high, intensity of shame and sadness. In addition, we found an interaction between type of emotion, intensity, and group: the traumaHC group exhibited a fourfold increased risk for substance use in high intense shame situations relative to the traumaSUD group. Our findings provide evidence for the drinking to cope model. The traumaSUD group showed a reduced distress tolerance for variable intensity of negative emotions. The differential effect of intense shame for the traumaHC group emphazises its potential role in the development of SUD following CAN. In addition, shame can be considered a relevant focus for therapeutic preinterventions and interventions for SUD after CAN.
We present the first mid-infrared (MIR) detection of a field brown dwarf (BD) and the first ground-based MIR measurements of a disk around a young BD candidate. We prove the absence of warm dust surrounding the field BD LP 944–20. In the case of the young BD candidate Cha Hα2, we find clear evidence for thermal dust emission from a disk. Surprisingly, the object does not exhibit any silicate feature as previously predicted. We show that the flat spectrum can be explained by an optically thick flat dust disk but not by a flared one.
The distribution of alloying elements in the constituent phases of a C-containing γ-TiAl based alloy has been characterized locally by atom probe tomography. The major elements of the alloy under consideration – Ti, Al, Nb, and Mo – are distributed uniformly within each of the constituent phases. Furthermore, Mo is preferentially dissolved in the βo-phase, whereas Nb content is similar in all phases. The selected C concentration of the alloy is below the overall solubility limit as no precipitates have been observed. Therefore, C is enriched in the α2-phase, whereas the βo-phase is depleted of C. In addition, βo/γ-interfaces have been prepared by site specific sample preparation and characterized by atom probe tomography. Segregation of Mo and C into the interfaces and their close vicinity was observed.
The central concern of the present chapter is with the question of why H. G. Adler's literary works failed to find a wider reading public during his own lifetime. My main focus is on the corpus of letters between Adler and Heinrich Böll which are held, respectively, in the German Literary Archive in Marbach, and the Historical Archives of the City of Cologne. Some of this correspondence has only come to light recently, during the process of review and re-archiving of material which survived the physical collapse of the latter institution in 2009. Following the suggestion of Adler's biographer, I also draw on Adler's correspondence with potential publishers. This material constitutes an interesting case study which offers complementary insights into the West German “literary field” of the 1950s and the two authors' interactions with it. I begin by tracing Böll's early career and in so doing refute the claims made by W. G. Sebald with respect to the later Nobel laureate's novel, Der Engel schwieg. This serves me to point up the insights that a consideration of the publication history of creative work can offer in the wider narrative of literary-historical trends and text reception, and, as a point particularly germane to the present chapter, how a writer's correspondence can be utilized in this regard as an invaluable storehouse of empirical material.
Adler and Sebald are two Einzelgänger of literature (as Michael Krüger's postscript to this volume suggests) but they both were also enmeshed in a rich network of literary relationships. Not only do they share certain literary affinities, above all with Kafka, but as writers who also are participating in the contested terrain of postwar German literature and cultural discourse, their relationship to each other is also part of a complex field of literary interrelations. To analyze these interrelations is to view the links between Adler and Sebald as part of a network of intellectual relationships that constituted the field of discourse in postwar Germany. This network was largely conditioned by the questions of what it meant to write in German after Nazism and, especially, what purpose literature might serve after Auschwitz. In drawing out the importance of Adler's and Sebald's literary networks in these heated debates, I draw on Pierre Bourdieu's theories of the literary field, looking at the ways in which both writers attempt to accrue cultural capital by building literary networks among their contemporaries and positioning themselves against writers of an older generation. I demonstrate that the shared intertextual networks that link Adler and Sebald are part of a larger map of intergenerational power struggles in the fields of German literature, Germanistik and Holocaust testimony.
In the “Guardian Profile” which appeared in September 2001 in anticipation of the UK launch of Anthea Bell's translation of W. G. Sebald's Austerlitz (2001), interviewer Maya Jaggi describes how Sebald “loathes the term ‘Holocaust literature.’” While the assertion no doubt owes something to Adorno's famous dictum, Sebald is quoted as stating, “It's a dreadful idea that you can have a sub-genre and make a speciality out of it; it's grotesque.” Attempts at “recreations” are described as “an obscenity”—according to Jaggi, Sebald commends Lanzmann's Shoah but condemns Schindler's List—and he asserts: “I don't think you can focus on the horror of the Holocaust. It's like the head of the Medusa: you carry it with you in a sack, but if you looked at it you'd be petrified.” Turning to his own practice (referring to Die Ausgewanderten (1992; The Emigrants, 1996), but also by implication to the recently published Austerlitz), Sebald claims that “I was trying to write the lives of some people who'd survived—the ‘lucky ones.’ If they were so fraught, you can extrapolate. But I didn't see it; I only know things indirectly.”
In her recent book on The Generation of Postmemory, Marianne Hirsch revisits and expands her concept of “postmemory” to emphasize both its processual nature and the position of the viewer. In considering the transmission of traumatic experiences beyond those experienced during the Holocaust, Hirsch opens up her discussion to allow for transnational as well as intermedial comparisons. In addition to authors, Hirsch looks at visual artists whose works can be situated within “a structure of inter- and transgenerational return of traumatic knowledge.” One of these artists is Bracha Lichtenberg-Ettinger, whose work Hirsch characterizes as follows:
In subjecting her original images to technologies of mechanical reproduction, in degrading, recycling, reproducing, and painting over them, Ettinger underscores the distance and anonymity of the camera gaze. But, at the same time, she allows all of these images to invade, inhabit, and haunt her, and she therefore inscribes them with her own very invested act of looking, exposing, in the images, her own desires, fears, and nightmares.
This description calls to mind both how W. G. Sebald works with images in his literary texts and what effect this method has on his narrators, characters, and, by extension, on us, his readers: by manipulating the surface of images, for example by photocopying photographs to obscure details and increase blurriness, Sebald invests the images with a new imaginative potential. Not only images invade, inhabit, and haunt both Sebald and his works, but texts enter into this process as well, such as the works of H. G. Adler.