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A piezoelectric biomedical microelectromechanical system (bioMEMS) cantilever device was designed and fabricated to act as either a sensing element for muscle tissue contraction or as an actuator to apply mechanical force to cells. The sensing ability of the piezoelectric cantilevers was shown by monitoring the electrical signal generated from the piezoelectric aluminum nitride in response to the contraction of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes cultured on the piezoelectric cantilevers. Actuation was demonstrated by applying electrical pulses to the piezoelectric cantilever and observing bending via an optical detection method. This piezoelectric cantilever device was designed to be incorporated into body-on-a-chip systems.
Community stroke rehabilitation (CSR) is an effective program for survivors to recover at home supported by a multidisciplinary team. A home-based, specialized CSR program was delivered in Windsor, Ontario, to stroke patients who faced barriers to accessing outpatient services following inpatient rehabilitation. Preliminary results show program patients made significant functional improvements from baseline to program discharge. A subgroup analysis revealed that, after adjusting for age and resource intensity, moderate to severe stroke patients made greater functional gains compared to mild stroke patients. The individualized focus of CSR delivered in the home provides an effective model of rehabilitation for continued stroke care in the community.
Leaf colour characteristics of 730 sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), plant introduction (PI) accessions from the USDA sweetpotato germplasm collection were evaluated during 2012–2014. Colorimetry data for the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces were recorded using a tristimulus colorimeter and the CIE 1976 L*a*b* and CIE L*C*h* colour spaces. Most accessions (725 of 730 PIs) had dark-to-medium green leaves, but two PIs had totally purple leaves, and three PIs had yellow or yellow-green (chartreuse) leaves. For mature, field-grown green leaves, values for the red-green coordinate (a*) averaged −12.4 for the adaxial and −10.4 for the abaxial leaf surface. Values for the blue-yellow coordinate (b*) averaged 17.2 for the adaxial and 17.3 for the abaxial leaf surface. Hue angle (h*) for green leaves averaged 120.9° for the adaxial and 126.2° for the abaxial leaf surface. Colour saturation (Chroma, C*) averaged 21.3 for the adaxial and 20.2 for the abaxial leaf surface. Lightness (L*) averaged 35.4 for the adaxial and 47.2 for the abaxial leaf surface of green leaves. Late in the season, over one-half (53.9%) of the 730 PIs showed some level of purple pigmentation in the leaf lamina. Late-season purple leaves were collected and colour coordinates were recorded for 118 PIs grown in the field. For purple leaves, values for a*, b*, C*, L* and h* averaged 2.3, 6.2, 7.9, 28.2 and 64.4° for the adaxial surface and −1.0, 12.7, 13.9, 43.1 and 87.0° for the abaxial leaf surface, respectively.
To determine whether children exposed to a greater variety of acts of parent-to-child physical and psychological maltreatment will be at greater risk of consuming obesogenic foods at a higher frequency.
Survey research using a longitudinal panel design.
In-home interviews with primary caregivers in twenty large US cities.
A national sample of at-risk children and their families who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS).
Child maltreatment emerged as a statistically significant (P<0·01) and robust predictor of obesogenic food consumption, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Child maltreatment also consistently emerged as one of the strongest predictors of obesogenic food consumption in these models. Ancillary analyses indicated that physical maltreatment plays a particularly important role in these associations.
A major implication of the present study is that child maltreatment prevention efforts should be reflected in interventions that seek to diminish unhealthy eating practices among children. Multi-professional teams can work together on obesity prevention not only via education but also by considering the interconnectedness of obesogenic food consumption and experiences of maltreatment.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the ultra-dose Na18F dPET protocol feasibility for skeleton imaging in a canine model with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. We hypothesized that administering an ultra-low Na18F dose would provide suitable image quality while reducing subject’s exposure to radiation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 13 adult male beagles [weight (kg) mean±SD; 14.3±2.2] were scanned. The dogs were administered 3 different Na18F doses: 3 (standard dose/SD), 1 (low dose/LD), and 0.05 (ultra-low dose/ULD) mCi. Imaging started ≃45 minutes post injection for ≃ 33 minute total acquisition time. Covering the whole body, 11 bed positions, acquiring 120 (3 mCi) and 180 (1, 0.05 mCi) seconds per bed position. All imaging was performed on a digital photon counting system (Philips Vereos, pre-commercial release). PET list mode data were reconstructed using Time-of-flight with 4, 2, and 1 mm3 voxel volumes. Point spread function, and Gaussian filtering were applied. Two experienced blinded readers evaluated image sets overall quality, tissue characterization, and quality of background in the whole body skeleton. Three-dimensional (3D) regions of interest (ROI) were traced over the distal femur, first lumbar vertebra, and a portion of the liver, recording standard uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: All the scans and reconstructions were successfully completed in all subjects. Decreasing Na18F dose from the standard dose (3 mCi) to the ultra-low dose/ULDO (0.05 mCi), demonstrated acceptable image quality and quantification. Ultra-low dose Na18F SUVmean values for the 3D ROIs reported (mean±SD) 2.6±0.7, 2.5±1.1, 9±1.6, and 0.6±0.3 from the right and left distal femur, first lumbar vertebra, and a portion of the liver, respectively. When compared the SD with the LD and ULD, dPET demonstrated acceptable image quality and definition for qualitative overall assessment. This was also found for the overall quantitative ROI assessment of the healthy canine skeletons. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Ultra-low dose Na18F at a level of 50 μCi for a 14 kg canine appears to be diagnostically feasible and a robust option to reduce (60-fold) radiotracer doses in a translational animal model using a dPET system. Furthermore, it allows us to move preclinical nuclear medicine imaging forward with substantial reduced exposure levels while preserving image quality. Both visual and quantitative results indicate that the standard-dose bone Na18F dPET can be decreased with a satisfactory diagnostic image quality. Ultra-low Na18F dose is indeed important for younger populations, control patients, and nononcological diseases/conditions. Favorable pharmacokinetics of Na18F (such as high bone uptake, minimal binding to serum proteins, rapid single-pass extraction, and fast clearance from the soft tissues) in addition to the technological capabilities of dPET/CT demonstrated feasibility enabling dose reduction strategies. Ultra-low dose has diagnostic reproducibility and lower radiation burden compared with higher fixed dose techniques in current available guidelines [Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; SNMMI (5–10 mCi)]. Na18F dPET/CT provides higher sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy, which enables high-quality images with lower tracer activity in this translational animal model. Future research will apply the same methodology to other anatomical targets as well as to the use of different tracers. Preclinical nuclear medicine imaging using ultra-low tracer doses, demonstrated the potential to obtain reasonable quality images and diminishing radiation surveillance in accordance with as low as reasonably achievable tracer levels.
Objectives: Rates of cognitive, academic and behavioral comorbidities are elevated in children with epilepsy. The contribution of environmental and genetic influences to comorbidity risk is not fully understood. This study investigated children with epilepsy, their unaffected siblings, and controls to determine the presence and extent of risk associated with family relatedness across a range of epilepsy comorbidities. Methods: Participants were 346 children (8–18 years), n=180 with recent-onset epilepsy, their unaffected siblings (n=67), and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=99). Assessments included: (1) Child Behavior Checklist/6-18 (CBCL), (2) Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), (3) history of education and academic services, and (4) lifetime attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. Analyses consisted of linear mixed effect models for continuous variables, and logistic mixed models for binary variables. Results: Differences were detected between the three groups of children across all measures (p<.001). For ADHD, academic problems, and executive dysfunction, children with epilepsy exhibited significantly more problems than unaffected siblings and controls; siblings and controls did not differ statistically significantly from each other. For social competence, children with epilepsy and their unaffected siblings displayed more abnormality compared with controls, with no statistically significant difference between children with epilepsy and unaffected siblings. For behavioral problems, children with epilepsy had more abnormality than siblings and controls, but unaffected siblings also exhibited more abnormalities than controls. Conclusions: The contribution of epilepsy and family relatedness varies across specific neurobehavioral comorbidities. Family relatedness was not significantly associated with rates of ADHD, academic problems and executive dysfunction, but was associated with competence and behavioral problems. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1–9)
Postwar El Salvador and Guatemala have undertaken to reform and democratize the state and to support the rule of law. Each country entered the 1990s hobbled by a legacy of authoritarian rule, while a corrupt and politicized judiciary offered virtually no check on the abuse of power. Because the judiciary has performed poorly as an institution of horizontal accountability, this article examines the performance of a new “accountability agency,” the Human Rights Ombudsman. The article discusses the context in which the office was established and developed in each country, perceptions of its performance, and political responses as the office began to perform its function of holding public officials accountable in their exercise of power. Unfortunately, this new office may fall prey to the same weaknesses that have plagued older institutions in both countries.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
Although high dose n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces exercise- and hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB/HIB), there are concurrent issues with cost, compliance and gastrointestinal discomfort. It is thus pertinent to establish the efficacy of lower n-3 PUFA doses. Eight male adults with asthma and HIB and eight controls without asthma were randomly supplemented with two n-3 PUFA doses (6·2 g/d (3·7 g EPA and 2·5 g DHA) and 3·1 g/d (1·8 g EPA and 1·3 g DHA)) and a placebo, each for 21 d followed by 14 d washout. A eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) challenge was performed before and after treatments. Outcome measures remained unchanged in the control group. In the HIB group, the peak fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after EVH at day 0 (−1005 (sd 520) ml, −30 (sd 18) %) was unchanged after placebo. The peak fall in FEV1 was similarly reduced from day 0 to day 21 of 6·2 g/d n-3 PUFA (−1000 (sd 460) ml, −29 (sd 17) % v. −690 (sd 460) ml, −20 (sd 15) %) and 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA (−970 (sd 480) ml, −28 (sd 18) % v. −700 (sd 420) ml, −21 (sd 15) %) (P<0·001). Baseline fraction of exhaled nitric oxide was reduced by 24 % (P=0·020) and 31 % (P=0·018) after 6·2 and 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA, respectively. Peak increases in 9α, 11β PGF2 after EVH were reduced by 65 % (P=0·009) and 56 % (P=0·041) after 6·2 and 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA, respectively. In conclusion, 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA supplementation attenuated HIB and markers of airway inflammation to a similar extent as a higher dose. Lower doses of n-3 PUFA thus represent a potentially beneficial adjunct treatment for adults with asthma and EIB.