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The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is enormously important in suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the structural alterations in the brains of people with MDD and suicidal ideation.
We examined the gray matter volume (GMV) of the PFC of individuals with MDD and suicidal ideation to determine if PFC volumetric differences contribute to suicidal ideation in patients with MDD.
Thirty-five subjects with MDD and suicidal ideation, 38 subjects with MDD but without suicidal ideation, and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging. A voxel-based morphometric analysis was conducted to compare the PFC GMVs of the three groups.
Further GMV reductions in the left and right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) were detected in the MDD with suicidal ideation group compared with those in the HC group and the MDD without suicidal ideation group, whereas the MDD without suicidal ideation group only exhibited significant differences in the left DLPFC relative to the HC group.
Our findings demonstrated that left DLPFC reductions were associated with MDD and suicidal ideation, and diminished GMV reductions in the right DLPFC and right VLPFC were only associated with suicidal ideation. These results help us better understand the neuropathological changes in MDD with suicidal ideation.
The present study explored the mechanism of Zn-methionine (Zn-Met) influencing eggshell quality of laying hens and investigated whether the mechanism was related to Ca deposition. Hyline grey layers (n 384, 38 weeks old) were divided into four groups: 0 mg Zn/kg, 40, 80 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met, and 80 mg Zn/kg as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). Eggshell quality, Zn contents, Zn-containing enzyme activities and expressions of shell matrix proteins in eggshell gland (ESG) were analysed. Zn-Met treatment at 80 mg/kg increased (P < 0·05) egg weight and eggshell strength throughout the experiments. The 80 mg/kg Zn-Met group (P < 0·05) had decreased mammillary knob width and larger relative atomic weight percentage of Ca, stronger signal intensity of Ca in linear distribution and the Ca was more evenly distributed in the transversal surface of eggshell. Zn contents (P < 0·001) in yolk and serum, Ca, albumin (Alb) levels in ESG as well as carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in serum (P < 0·05) and mRNA levels of CA and Ca-binding protein-d28k (CaBP-D28k) (P < 0·001) in the 80 mg/kg Zn-Met group were the highest among all treatments. In conclusion, shell strength as one of eggshell qualities was mostly related to mammillary cone width in ultrastructure caused by the pattern of Ca deposition in eggshell formation. Also, the increase in Zn-Met-induced Ca deposition may be due to the increased Zn contents in serum and tissues, which were attributable to the increased CA concentrations in serum, Ca, Alb levels and up-regulated CA and CaBP-D28k mRNA levels in ESG.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
In this paper, we study the existence, nonexistence and mass concentration of L2-normalized solutions for nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations. Comparingwith the Schrödinger equation, we encounter some new challenges due to the nonlocal nature of the fractional Laplacian. We first prove that the optimal embedding constant for the fractional Gagliardo–Nirenberg–Sobolev inequality can be expressed by exact form, which improves the results of [17, 18]. By doing this, we then establish the existence and nonexistence of L2-normalized solutions for this equation. Finally, under a certain type of trapping potentials, by using some delicate energy estimates we present a detailed analysis of the concentration behavior of L2-normalized solutions in the mass critical case.
True ileal digestibility (TID) values of amino acid (AA) obtained using growing rats are often used for the characterisation of protein quality in different foods and acquisition of digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in adult humans. Here, we conducted an experiment to determine the TID values of AA obtained from nine cooked cereal grains (brown rice, polished rice, buckwheat, oats, proso millet, foxtail millet, tartary buckwheat, adlay and whole wheat) fed to growing Sprague–Dawley male rats. All rats were fed a standard basal diet for 7 d and then received each diet for 7 d. Ileal contents were collected from the terminal 20 cm of ileum. Among the TID values obtained, whole wheat had the highest values (P<0·05), and polished rice, proso millet and tartary buckwheat had relatively low values. The TID indispensable AA concentrations in whole wheat were greater than those of brown rice or polished rice (P<0·05), and polished rice was the lowest total TID concentrations among the other cereal grains. The DIAAS was 68 for buckwheat, 47 for tartary buckwheat, 43 for oats, 42 for brown rice, 37 for polished rice, 20 for whole wheat, 13 for adlay, 10 for foxtail millet and 7 for proso millet. In this study, the TID values of the nine cooked cereal grains commonly consumed in China were used for the creation of a DIAAS database and thus gained public health outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hesitant or preoccupied people (state-oriented) have different goal content and motives compared to initiative or disengaged people (action-oriented). People rated the degree of autonomous versus controlled feelings for extrinsic or intrinsic types of goals. Results showed that action-oriented people had a higher autonomous motive than state-oriented people for intrinsic goals, but not for extrinsic goals. Moreover, action-oriented individuals were related to a more internalised goal content (intrinsic goal) than state-oriented individuals. Implications for goal internalisation are discussed.
In this paper, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd isotope geochemistry of the Baiyanghe dolerites in northern West Junggar of NW China are presented. The U–Pb dating of zircons from the dolerites yielded ages of 272.2±4 Ma and 276.7±6.2 Ma, which indicate the emplacement times. The dolerites are characterized by minor variations in SiO2 (46.89 to 49.07 wt%), high contents of Al2O3 (13.60 to 13.92 wt%) and total Fe2O3 (11.14 to 11.70 wt%), and low contents of MgO (2.67 to 3.64 wt%) and total alkalis (Na2O+K2O, 5.1 to 5.97 wt%, K2O/Na2O = 0.37–0.94), which indicate affinities to metaluminous tholeiite basalt. The REE pattern ((La/Sm)N = 2.25–2.34, (La/Yb)N = 7.42–8.36), V–Ti/1000 and 50*Zr–Ti/50–Sm discrimination diagrams show that these rocks are OIB-type. The high contents of Zr and Ti indicate a within-plate tectonic setting, and samples plot in the ‘plume source’ field shown on the Dy/Yb(N) versus Ce/Yb(N) diagram. The positive εNd(t) values (+7.09 to +7.48), high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70442 to 0.70682) and depletions of Nb and Ta elements in the samples can be explained by the involvement of subducted sediments. In summary, it is possible that the Baiyanghe dolerites were derived from an OIB-like mantle source and associated with a mantle plume tectonic setting. Therefore, our samples provide the youngest evidence for the existence of a mantle plume, which may provide new insights into the Late Palaeozoic tectonic setting of West Junggar.
We integrate previous work on the Hegenshan–Heihe suture with our interpretation of geomagnetic anomaly and seismic reflection data to investigate the role of the Hegenshan–Heihe suture in the evolution of late Mesozoic extensional structures in the Wunite depression of the Erlian Basin. Sags in the Wunite depression present as NE50° trending in the western sector, N0°–NE30° trending in the central sector and NE45° trending in the eastern sector. Our results highlight the importance of the pre-existing Hegenshan–Heihe suture in the evolution of the late Mesozoic rift system and reveal the following details. (1) The NE50° extent sags in the western sector are controlled by the c. NE50°-trending suture. Moreover, the extensional deformation of the reactivated suture during Early Cretaceous time resulted in a further vertical and horizontal extension of major border faults. (2) The N0°–NE30° extent sags in the central sector are influenced by the c. NE75°-trending suture. The sinistral strike-slip component of the reactivated suture during Early Cretaceous time resulted in a strike rotation of major border faults from NEE-trending (following the suture) to NNE-trending. (3) Because of strike-slip deformation, which resulted from the deformation of the reactivated suture accrued in major border faults, light dip-slip deformation led to less vertical offset. (4) The NE45°-trending sags in the eastern sector are controlled by the c. NE45°-trending suture. Moreover, the extensional deformation of the reactivated suture during Early Cretaceous time facilitated a further vertical and horizontal prolongation of major border faults.
The influence of hot rolling on the evolution of the interface microstructure as well as mechanical properties of the Mg/Al explosive welding composite plates was investigated. The hardening phenomenon induced by explosive welding could be eliminated effectively through preheating treatment. An intermetallic compound layer consisting of Al3Mg2 and Mg17Al12 was observed at the Mg/Al interface after annealing at 400 °C. The composite plate then was hot rolled at 400 °C with different reduction ratios. The composite plates presented different degrees of warp and edge cracks with increasing the reduction ratio. At the reduction ratio of 30%, the coordination deformation ability of the constituent Mg and Al alloys is consistent with the composite plate. The results showed that the tensile strength and the elongation of the composite plates increased significantly after hot rolling owing to the dynamic recrystallization and the intermetallic compounds thickness decrease during hot rolling.
Various routes (unidirectional, cross, and three directions) normal and different speed rolling (DSR) are conducted on pure titanium sheet at 673 K and sequent 933 K annealing is followed. The results show that transverse direction (TD)-split double peak texture is kept during unidirectional rolling and a fiber basal texture is formed after cross and three-direction rolling. However, TD-split texture is preserved and rotates about 45° while the fiber basal texture is generated after cross and three direction rolling combining (DSTDR) DSR, respectively. This may be related to the changed strain path and induced shear deformation as well as thermal activation. Due to rotation of grains, the anisotropy of mechanical properties of Ti sheets decreases, especially in various DSR routes. Erichsen value is improved greatly in DSTDR specimens.
An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT–PCR. Samples that were RNA positive were genotyped. Of 185 senior residents and 24 staff in the nursing home, there were 37 laboratory-confirmed cases during the outbreak. Of these cases, 12 patients (three deaths) were symptomatic with jaundice, a common clinical symptom for hepatitis E infection. HEV strains were isolated from three cases and they formed a single cluster within genotype 4d. A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for the outbreak and the results revealed that cases more often washed their dishes and rinsed their mouths using tap water than the controls (P < 0·05). Based on hygiene investigation and meteorological information, it is likely that HEV-infected sewage and faeces contaminated the water network on rainy days. Collectively, these results suggest that the outbreak of HEV genotype 4 infection was most likely caused by contaminated tap water rather than food.
Ice algae have successfully adapted to the extreme environmental conditions in the Antarctic, however the underlying mechanisms involved in the regulation and response of thylakoid membranes and chloroplast to low-temperature stress are still not well understood. In this study, changes in pigment concentrations, lipids, fatty acids and pigment protein complexes in thylakoid membranes and chloroplast after exposure to low temperature conditions were investigated using the Antarctic ice algae Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L. Results showed that the chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L are distributed throughout the cell except in the nuclear region in the form of thylakoid lamellas which exists in the gap between organelles and the starch granules. Also, the structure of mitochondria has no obvious change after cold stress. Concentrations of Chl a, Chl b, monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, digalactosyl diacylglycerol and fatty acids were also observed to exhibit changes with temperature, suggesting possible adaptations to cold environments. The light harvesting complex, lutein and β-carotene played an important role for adaptation of ICE-L, and increasing of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol and digalactosyl diacylglycerol improved the overall degree of unsaturation of thylakoid membranes, thereby maintaining liquidity of thylakoid membranes. The pigments, lipids, fatty acids and pigment-protein complexes maintained the stability of the thylakoid membranes and the normal physiological function of Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L.
Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)) may influence serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD). In the present study, we assessed serum 25OHD concentration and its association with PTH and BMD in urban males from Guiyang (N26.57°), the capital city of Guizhou province, Southwest China. We recruited 634 males aged >20 years from the Guiyang Health Measures Survey, and stratified them into three groups according to age: young (20–39 years), middle aged (40–59 years) and older (60–79 years). We measured serum concentrations of 25OHD, PTH levels and BMD of the lumbar spine (L1–L4), femoral neck and total hip. In addition, we also explored the relationship between 25OHD and lifestyle, socio-economic characteristics and medical history by applying covariance analysis and locally weighted regression plots. The results showed that serum 25OHD was <50 nmol/l in 59·3 % of the subjects and >75 nmol/l in 12·6 % of the subjects. Higher level of serum PTH was detected in relation to lower concentrations of serum 25OHD up to 50 nmol/l. A negative correlation between serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations was observed (r −0·207, P=0·003). Mean concentration of serum PTH increased gradually and plateaued while concentrations of serum 25OHD decreased to 50 nmol/l. Gradual increase in serum PTH was observed as 25OHD concentration was <25 nmol/l (P=0·004). BMD values at all sites were greater in the higher serum 25OHD concentration group. This study shows that low concentrations of serum 25OHD were common in males, and bone health was likely to be improved when serum 25OHD values were between 30 and 50 nmol/l.
The present study sought to explore the role of meaning making and high-level construal in the relationship between meaning discrepancy and posttraumatic growth among Chinese cancer patients.
The participants were 193 individuals diagnosed with cancer. Meaning discrepancy, meaning making, high-level construal in meaning making, and posttraumatic growth were measured. Bootstrapping and structural equation modeling were performed to test the mediation effects of high-level construal on the meaning-making process.
Mediation analysis revealed that perceived discrepancies were associated with individuals' meaning-making efforts. Meaning-making efforts prompted participants to adopt a high-level construal orientation, which in turn enhanced posttraumatic growth.
Significance of results:
Our study empirically tested construal level theory in a population suffering from severe chronic trauma. The results demonstrate the important role of high-level construal in the meaning-making process of cancer patients, suggesting a specific effective strategy to foster posttraumatic growth. It seems encouraging to indicate that adopting such high-level construal may be included as part of psychological interventions for cancer patients.
Background: Assessment of ischemic penumbra during the acute stage of cerebral infarction is crucial for a decision to initiate thrombolytic therapy and for predicting stroke evolution. Although controversial as a perfect equivalence to penumbra, perfusion weighted imaging (PWI)-diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) mismatch may predict the response to thrombolysis. Due to the reliance on contrast agents in PWI, noninvasive alternatives remain an unmet need. Methods: We herein investigate the potentials of SWI as an alternative to PWI in defining ischemic penumbra and in predicting stroke outcome. A multimodal magnetic resonance imaging work-up which includes conventional magnetic resonance imaging sequences (T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR), DWI, PWI and SWI was performed. The Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS) was used to evaluate the changes in DWI, SWI and PWI. Results: The mismatch of SWI-DWI was comparable with that of PWI-DWI (p>0.05). Furthermore, the grade of prominent vein and the cerebral blood volume in the ipsilateral brain tissue were positively correlated. Conclusions: SWI can be used as a noninvasive alternative to identify occlusive arteries and to evaluate the ischemic penumbra. The susceptibility vein sign may represent thrombosis in arteries whereby being helpful to identify responsible blood vessels in ischemic stroke.
Recent studies have shown that chemical immiscibility is important to achieve enhanced radiation tolerance in metallic multilayers as immiscible layer interfaces are more stable against radiation induced mixing than miscible interfaces. However, as most of these immiscible systems have incoherent interfaces, the influence of coherency on radiation resistance of immiscible systems remains poorly understood. Here, we report on radiation response of immiscible Cu/Fe multilayers, with individual layer thickness h varying from 0.75 to 100 nm, subjected to He ion irradiation. When interface is incoherent, the peak bubble density decreases with decreasing h and reaches a minimum when h is 5 nm. At even smaller h when interface is increasingly coherent, the peak bubble density increases again. However, void swelling in coherent multilayers with smaller h remains less than those in incoherent multilayers. Our study suggests that the coherent immiscible interface is also effective to alleviate radiation induced damage.
We associate the topological entropy of monotone recurrence relations with the Aubry–Mather theory. If there exists an interval
such that, for each
, all Birkhoff minimizers with rotation number
do not form a foliation, then the diffeomorphism on the high-dimensional cylinder defined via the monotone recurrence relation has positive topological entropy.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.