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Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a prevalent mental health issue that impairs an individual’s ability to adapt to a traumatic event. This study aims to investigate the intervention effects of perceptual behavioral psychotherapy (PBP) combined with community quality services on patients with ASD.
Subjects and Methods
The study employed a randomized controlled trial design. A total of 100 participants diagnosed with ASD were randomly assigned to two groups: the intervention group and the control group. The intervention group received PBP and community quality services, while the control group received standard care. The Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire (SASRQ) and the 3-min Confusion Assessment Scale (3D-CAM) were used to assess the participants’ anxiety levels and cognitive functioning, respectively. Data analysis was performed using SPSS23.0 software.
The results showed a significant reduction in anxiety levels in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Cognitive functioning, as measured by the 3D-CAM, significantly improved in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the intervention group reported higher levels of satisfaction with the community quality services received.
Perceptual behavioral psychotherapy combined with community quality services demonstrated positive intervention effects on patients with ASD. The findings suggest that this integrated approach has the potential to improve anxiety levels and cognitive functioning in individuals with ASD. These results highlight the importance of incorporating comprehensive support systems into the treatment of ASD to facilitate recovery and enhance overall well-being. Further research is recommended to validate and generalize these findings.
Treatment non-response and recurrence are the main sources of disease burden in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about its neurobiological mechanism concerning the brain network changes accompanying pharmacotherapy. The present study investigated the changes in the intrinsic brain networks during 6-month antidepressant treatment phase associated with the treatment response and recurrence in MDD.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from untreated patients with MDD and healthy controls at baseline. The patients' depressive symptoms were monitored by using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). After 6 months of antidepressant treatment, patients were re-scanned and followed up every 6 months over 2 years. Traditional statistical analysis as well as machine learning approaches were conducted to investigate the longitudinal changes in macro-scale resting-state functional network connectivity (rsFNC) strength and micro-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) associated with long-term treatment outcome in MDD.
Repeated measures of the general linear model demonstrated a significant difference in the default mode network (DMN) rsFNC change before and after the 6-month antidepressant treatment between remitters and non-remitters. The difference in the rsFNC change over the 6-month antidepressant treatment between recurring and stable MDD was also specific to DMN. Machine learning analysis results revealed that only the DMN rsFC change successfully distinguished non-remitters from the remitters at 6 months and recurring from stable MDD during the 2-year follow-up.
Our findings demonstrated that the intrinsic DMN connectivity could be a unique and important target for treatment and recurrence prevention in MDD.
Mechanistic studies have suggested that antioxidants have beneficial effects on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study aimed to investigate the association between the types and sources of dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes and AMD risk in China. A matched case–control study of 260 AMD cases and 260 matched controls was performed. The participants were interviewed for dietary information and potential confounders, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were performed. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of specific vitamins and carotenoids and their main sources. When comparing the extreme quartiles, the ORs (95 % CI) were 0·30 (0·10, 0·88) for lutein and 0·28 (0·11, 0·74) for β-cryptoxanthin. The associations for other dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes were generally weaker and non-significant. Higher intakes of spinach and egg, which are important sources of lutein, were associated with a reduced odds of AMD. ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme categories were 0·42 (0·20, 0·88) for spinach and 0·52 (95% CI: 0·27, 0·98) for egg. Participants who were in the highest category of both egg intake and spinach intake had a much greater reduced odds of having AMD (OR: 0·23; 95% CI: 0·08, 0·71) than those in the lowest category of egg intake and spinach intake. In conclusion, a higher intake of lutein and lutein-rich foods was associated with a significantly decreased odds of AMD. These findings provide further evidence of the benefits of lutein and lutein-rich foods in the prevention of AMD.
Extracts of mulberry have been shown to reduce post-prandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses, but reliability of these effects and required doses and specifications are unclear. We previously found that 1·5 g of a specified mulberry fruit extract (MFE) significantly reduced PPG and PPI responses to 50 g carbohydrate as rice porridge, with no indications of intolerance. The trials reported here aimed to replicate that work and assess the efficacy of lower MFE doses, using boiled rice as the carbohydrate source. Two separate randomised controlled intervention studies were carried out with healthy Indian males and females aged 20–50 years (n 84 per trial), with PPG area under the curve over 2 h as the primary outcome. Trial 1 used doses of 0, 0·37, 0·75, 1·12 and 1·5 g MFE in boiled rice and 0 or 1·5 g MFE in rice porridge. Trial 2 used doses of 0, 0·04, 0·12, 0·37 g MFE in boiled rice. In trial 1, relative to control, all MFE doses significantly decreased PPG (–27·2 to −22·9 %; all P ≤ 0·02) and PPI (–34·6 to −14·0 %, all P < 0·01). Breath hydrogen was significantly increased only at 1·5 g MFE (in rice porridge), and self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms were uniformly low. In trial 2, only 0·37 g MFE significantly affected PPG (–20·4 %, P = 0·002) and PPI (–17·0 %, P < 0·001). Together, these trials show that MFE in doses as low as 0·37 g can reliably reduce PPG and PPI responses to a carbohydrate-rich meal, with no apparent adverse effects.
We investigated the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV, and those diagnosed with only TB in Sichuan, China. TB isolates were obtained from January 2018 to December 2020 and subjected to drug susceptibility testing (DST) to 11 anti-TB drugs and to GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing. The overall proportion of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) isolates was 32.1% (n = 10 946). HIV testing was not universally available for outpatient TB cases, only 29.5% (3227/10 946) cases had HIV testing results. The observed proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) isolates was almost double than that of the national level, with approximately 1.5% and 0.1% of the isolates being extensively drug resistant and universally drug resistant, respectively. The proportions of resistant isolates were generally higher in 2018 and 2019 than in 2020. Furthermore, the sensitivities of GeneXpert during 2018–2020 demonstrated a downward trend (80.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 76.8–85.0; 80.2, 95% CI 76.4–84.1 and 75.4, 95% CI 70.7–80.2, respectively). Approximately 69.0% (7557/10 946) of the TB cases with DST results were subjected to GeneXpert detection. Overall, the DR-TB status and the use of GeneXpert in Sichuan have improved, but DR-TB challenges remain. HIV testing for all TB cases is recommended.
We demonstrated a 202 W Tm:YLF slab laser using a reflecting volume Bragg grating (VBG) as an output coupler at room temperature. Two kinds of active heat dissipation methods were used for the VBG to suppress the shift of wavelength caused by its increasing temperature. The maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 202 W using the microchannel cooling was obtained under the total incident pump power of 553 W, the corresponding slope efficiency and optical-to-optical conversion efficiency were 39.7% and 36.5%, respectively. The central wavelength was 1908.5 nm with the linewidth (full width at half maximum) of 0.57 nm. Meanwhile, with the laser output increasing from 30 to 202 W, the total shift was about 1.0 nm, and the wavelength was limited to two water absorption lines near 1908 nm. The beam quality factors M2 were measured to be 2.3 and 4.0 in x and y directions at 202 W.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.
Grain boundary (GB) motions, such as migration, sliding and rotation, have been shown to play a vital role in the mechanical performance of polycrystalline metals. Despite extensive efforts have been made on the pure polycrystalline metals, few attentions have been paid to those in alloys. In this work, taking conventional nanoscale Cu–Al binary alloy system as an example, we intend to shed some light on understanding its GB motions under shear loading by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is found that either shear-coupled GB migration or sliding motion can be observed, depending on GB tilt angles, temperatures and Al solute concentrations. By systematical MD simulations, the Al concentration required for transition between shear-coupled migration and sliding is found to decrease with increasing tilt angles (θ ≤ 50°) at fixed temperature, whereas it switches to the opposite trend for larger tilt angles. Furthermore, the GBs migrate much slower comparing with those in pure Cu, which shows the drag effects of the Al solutes in the alloy form. Moreover, the critical stress during shear loading shows a linear dependence on 2/3 power of the temperature.
To investigate the association of folic acid (FA) supplementation with birth weight, the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW) in singleton and twin pregnancy.
A population-based cross-sectional survey.
Twenty counties and ten districts in Shaanxi Province of northwestern China, 2013.
28 174 pregnant women with their infants, covering 27 818 single live births and 356 twin live births.
The prevalence of FA supplementation in singletons and twins was 63·9 and 66·3 %. The mean birth weight was 3267 (sd 459·1) g, 2525 (sd 534·0) g and 2494 (sd 539·5) g; the prevalence of SGA was 14·3, 51·4 and 53·4 %; the prevalence of LBW was 3·4, 42·4 and 46·6 % among singleton, twin A and twin B, respectively. Compared with non-users, women with FA supplementation were (β 17·3, 95 % CI 6·1, 28·4; β 166·3, 95 % CI 69·1, 263·5) associated with increased birth weight, lower risk of SGA (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·92; OR 0·45, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·68) and LBW (OR 0·82, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·95; OR 0·50, 95 % CI 0·33, 0·75) in singletons and twins, and more prominent effects in twins. Moreover, there were significant interactions between FA supplementation and plurality on birth weight, SGA and LBW.
The present study suggests the association of periconceptional 0·4 mg/d FA supplementation with increased birth weight and reduced risk of SGA and LBW in both singletons and twins, and this association may be more prominent in twins.
Few studies have investigated the association between maternal dietary patterns (DP) during pregnancy, derived from reduced-rank regression (RRR), and fetal growth. This study aims to identify DP during pregnancy associated with macro- and micronutrient intakes, using the RRR method, and to examine their relationship with birth weight (BW). We used data of 7194 women from a large-scale cross-sectional survey in Northwest China. Dietary protein, carbohydrate, haem Fe density and the ratio of PUFA and MUFA:SFA were used as the intermediate variables in the RRR model to extract DP. Generalised estimating equation models were applied to evaluate the associations between DP and BW and related outcomes (including BW z-score, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA)). Four DP during pregnancy were identified. Socio-demographically disadvantaged pregnant women were more likely to have lower BW and lower adherence to DP1 (high legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods, with relative low wheat and oils). Women with medium and high adherence to DP1 had significantly increased BW (medium 28·6 (95 % CI 7·1, 50·1); high 25·2 (95 % CI 2·7, 47·6)) and BW z-score and had significantly reduced risks of LBW and SGA. The associations were stronger among women with babies <3100 g. There is no association between other DP and outcomes. Higher adherence to the DP that was high in legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods was associated with improved BW in the Chinese pregnant women, particularly among those with disadvantageous socio-demographic conditions.
Astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) is one of the important part of the future development of astronomy. During the past few years, as the rapid evolution of Internet and the continuous change of policy, the breeding environment of science EPO keep improving and the number of related projects show a booming trend. EPO is no longer just a matter of to teachers and science educators but also attracted the attention of professional astronomers. Among all activates of astronomy EPO, the data driven astronomy education and public outreach (abbreviated as DAEPO) is special and important. It benefits from the development of Big Data and Internet technology and is full of flexibility and diversity. We will present the history, definition, best practices and prospective development of DAEPO for better understanding this active field.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Yunnan province. We studied the epidemic characteristics of HCV in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Serum from 894 HIV-1 patients was collected, together with basic information and biochemical features. All samples were infected with HIV through injecting drug users (IDUs) and sexual transmission (ST). The NS5B gene was amplified and sequenced to affirm HCV genotype. In total, 202 HIV patients were co-infected with HCV, and most (81.19%) of co-infected patients were IDUs. Genotype 3b was predominant (37.62%) in these samples, and its frequency was similar in patients with IDU and ST. The frequencies of genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 6a, 6n, 2a and 6u were 3.96%, 16.34%, 23.76%, 6.93%, 10.40%, 0.50% and 0.50%, respectively. However, genotype 3a showed significantly different frequency in HCV patients with IDU and ST (P = 0.019). When HCV patients were divided into subgroups, the haemoglobin (HGB) level was significantly higher in patients with genotype 3a than in patients with 3b (P = 0.033), 6a (P = 0.006) and 6n (P = 0.007), respectively. Although no difference existed among HCV subgroups, HIV-viral load was identified to be positively correlated with the HGB level and CD4+ cells when dividing HCV/HIV co-infected persons into male and female groups. In conclusion, genotype 3b was the predominant HCV genotype in Yunnan HIV/HCV co-infected persons. The HGB level was higher in patients with genotype 3a than others. HIV-viral load was positively correlated with the HGB level and CD4+ cells in the male or female HCV-infected group.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This population-based study aims to assess the individual and collective relationship between TMA-associated metabolites and echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular diastolic function. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study cohort consisted of 1,039 adult participants of the Bogalusa Heart Study (35.13% black, 57.94% female, aged 33.60 to 57.47 years). Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed via two dimensional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function included peak early (E, cm/s) and late transmitral flow velocities (A, cm/s), septal mitral annular velocity (e’, cm/s), left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT, ms), and peak early diastolic transmitral flow velocity deceleration time (DT, ms). Metabolomic analysis of fasting serum samples was conducted via ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Six metabolites in the TMA pathway, carnitine, choline, TMAO, betaine, ergothioneine, dimethylglycine, and two composite variables, the betaine/choline ratio as well as the weighted sum of the six TMA-associated metabolites (TMA score), were selected a priori and tested for association with echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function. Raw metabolite values were divided by their respective standard deviation to create an exposure variable for each individual metabolite. The betaine/choline ratio was calculated utilizing the raw value of each metabolite. The z-score method was used to transform the six metabolites to the same scale and these values were used to calculate the TMA score. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were employed to assess the relationship of TMA-associated metabolites with echocardiographic measures of diastolic function. Covariates adjusted for included sex, age, race, education, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, glomerular filtrate rate, body mass index, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, serum triglycerides, as well as blood pressure-, lipid-, and glucose-lowering medications. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, four TMA-associated metabolites as well the TMA score were significantly associated with diastolic function. TMAO was inversely associated with IVRT (ß = −0.002 (0.00); p-value = 2.00E-03). Betaine (ß = 0.40 (0.08); p-value = 2.10E-07), carnitine (ß = 0.30 (0.07); p-value = 7.80E-05), dimethylglycine (ß = 0.27 (0.07); p-value = 3.00E-04), and the TMA score (ß = 0.10 (0.02); p-value = 3.40E-05), were positively associated with the septal E/e’ ratio. No significant associations were observed between metabolites or metabolite composite scores from the TMA pathway and the E/A ratio or DT. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This is the first population-based study to assess the role of TMA-associated metabolites in left ventricular diastolic function. Betaine, carnitine, dimethylglycine, and a metabolite score combining serum metabolites from the TMA pathway were positively associated with the septal E/e’ ratio, suggesting that a higher concentration of TMA-associated metabolites correlates with impaired diastolic function. These results suggest that both individual and grouped metabolites from the TMA pathway may serve as early biomarkers for pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction, an important causal factor for HFpEF. Future longitudinal, multi-omic studies incorporating microbiome, metabolomic and dietary analyses are needed to characterize the risk of ventricular diastolic function and HFpEF in the setting of exposure to TMA-associated metabolites.
We analyse an optimal portfolio and consumption problem with stochastic factor and delay over a finite time horizon. The financial market includes a risk-free asset, a risky asset and a stochastic factor. The price process of the risky asset is modelled as a stochastic differential delay equation whose coefficients vary according to the stochastic factor; the drift also depends on its historical performance. Employing the stochastic dynamic programming approach, we establish the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation. Then we solve the optimal investment and consumption strategies for the power utility function. We also consider a special case in which the price process of the stochastic factor degenerates into a Cox–Ingersoll–Ross model. Finally, the effects of the delay variable on the optimal strategies are discussed and some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the results.
Group-3 medulloblastoma (MBL) is highly resistant to radiation (IR) and chemotherapy and has the worst prognosis. Hence, there is an urgent need to elucidate targets that sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy and IR. Employing standard assays for viability and sensitization to IR, we identified PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in Group-3 MBL. Specifically, targeting PRDX1 by RNAi or inhibition by Adenanthin led to specific killing and sensitization to IR of Group-3 MBL cells. We rescued sensitization of Daoy and UW228 cells by hypermorphic expression of PRDX1. PRDX1 knockdown caused oxidative DNA damage and induced apoptosis. We correlated PRDX1 expression to patient outcomes in a validated MBL tumor-microarray. Whole genome sequencing identified pathways/genes that were dysregulated with PRDX1 inhibition or silencing. Our in vivo studies in mice employing flank/orthotopic tumors from patient derived xenografts/Group-3 MBL cells confirmed in vitro observations. Animals with tumors in which PRDX1 was targeted by RNAi or Adenanthin (using mini osmotic pumps) showed decreased tumor burden and increased survival when compared to controls. Since, Adenanthin does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) we used HAV6 peptide to transiently disrupt the BBB and deliver Adenanthin to the tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that targeting PRDX1 resulted in increased oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In summary, we have validated PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in group-3 MBL, identified Adenanthin as a potent chemical inhibitor of PRDX1 and confirmed the role of HAV peptide (in the transient modulation of BBB permeability) in an orthotopic model of group-3 MBL.
Astronomy cloud computing environment is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). Based on virtualization technology, astronomy cloud computing environment was designed and implemented by China-VO team. It consists of five distributed nodes across the mainland of China. Astronomer can get compuitng and storage resource in this cloud computing environment. Through this environments, astronomer can easily search and analyze astronomical data collected by different telescopes and data centers , and avoid the large scale dataset transportation.
To describe nutrient intakes, characterize dietary patterns and analyse their associations with sociodemographic characteristics among pregnant women in Shaanxi, China.
Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Twenty counties and ten districts in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China, 2013.
Women (n 7462) were recruited using a stratified multistage random sampling method to report diets during pregnancy, at 0–12 months (median 3 months; 10th–90th percentile, 0–7 months) after delivery.
Pregnant women had higher intakes of fat, niacin and vitamin E than the nutrient reference values, while most micronutrients such as vitamin A, folate, Ca and Zn were reportedly low. Women in the highest education, occupation and household income groups had higher nutrient intakes than those in the lowest groups. Nutrient intake differences also existed by geographic area, residence and maternal age at delivery. Three dietary patterns were identified: balanced pattern, vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern. Participants with high balanced pattern scores tended to be better educated, wealthier, 25–29 years old at delivery, working outside and living in urban areas and central Shaanxi. Women with high scores on the vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern tended to be in low balanced pattern score groups, and had lower nutrient intakes than those in the high balanced pattern score groups.
The study suggested that pregnant women in Shaanxi, China had low intakes of most nutrients such as vitamin A, folate and Ca. Dietary patterns and most nutrient intakes varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Targeted programmes are needed to improve dietary intakes and dietary patterns among sociodemographically disadvantaged groups.