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Silicon Photonics is the technological to face the future challenges in data communications and processing. This technology follows the same paradigm as the technological revolution of the integrated circuit industry, that is, the miniaturization and the standardization. One of the most important building blocks in Silicon Photonics is the microresonator, a circular optical cavity, which enables many different passive and active optical functions. Here, we will describe the new physics of the intermodal coupling, which occurs when multi radial mode resonators are coupled to waveguides, and of the optical chaos, which develops in coupled sequence of resonators. In addition, an application of resonators in the label-free biosensing will be discussed.
The properties of quasi-random and random photonic systems have been extensively studied over the last two decades, but recent technological advances have opened new horizons in the field, providing better samples and devices. New optical characterization techniques have enhanced understanding of the novel and fundamental properties of these systems. This book examines the full hierarchy of these systems, from 1D to 2D and 3D, from photonic crystals and random microresonator chains to quasi crystals. It treats photon transport as well as photon generation and random lasing, and deals with semiconductors, organics and glass materials. Presenting basic and state-of-the-art research on this fascinating field, this collection of self-contained chapters is an ideal introductory text for graduate students entering this field, as well as a useful reference for researchers in optics, photonics and optical engineering.
This book is the result of our interest in understanding, mastering, and engineering randomness in photonic systems. It is a natural consequence of what we did in the past. In the late 1980s, while Lorenzo Pavesi was working on semiconductor superlattices he noticed that for some energies the vertical transport through the superlattice minibands was inhibited due to disorder (L. Pavesi et al. 1989. Phys. Rev. B, 39, 7788). Then, working on the recombination dynamics of excitons in porous silicon, he further noticed that the random arrangement of silicon quantum dots has a strong influence on the recombination dynamics of excitons(L. Pavesi et al. 1993. Phys. Rev. B, 48, 17625). After Mher Ghulinyan came to Trento in 2002, we developed the techniques to fabricate free-standing porous silicon dielectric multilayers of any stacking sequence (M. Ghulinyan et al. 2003. J. Appl. Phys., 93, 9724). This was the first time that we had the chance to designat will one-dimensional periodic, aperiodic, or random photonic systems. A fascinating new physics opened up for us: that of the analogy of photon propagationin complex dielectric systems with carrier transport in random electronic systems. Our latest results in the field are associated with sequences of ring resonators where randomness causes the formation of resonant coupling between different rings with the possibility of yielding the optical analog of the electromagnetic induced transparency (M. Mancinelli et al. 2011. Opt. Express, 19, 13664), or chaotic photon propagation.
Over all these years, we have had the chance to interact with many researchers active in the field of periodic, quasiperiodic, and random photonic systems. From these interactions the idea of this book was born. We have therefore collected together a series of self-contained chapters to cover the whole field with the specific aim of introducing the different aspects, showing the current status of the research, and envisaging future directions. All invited authors have responded to this challenge with great enthusiasm and professionalism.
The book opens with Chapter 1 by W. L. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, which introduces the field and covers the timeline between the early studies on these systems and the very latest achievements in the field.
Self-organization is one of the most extraordinary tools in Nature which assembles its elementary building blocks, atoms and molecules, in the form of solid substances. Crystals, in this sense, represent the class of a vast number of solid materials in which atoms (molecules) are brought together in a perfect, spatially periodic manner. A macroscopic crystal, therefore, is made by repeating its smallest microscopic period – the crystal unit cell – infinitely in space (Fig. 5.1(a)). Therefore, when translating the crystal by an integer number of unit cell size, the crystal coincides with itself. This property is in the basis of modern solid-state physics and crystallography and is known as the discrete translational symmetry. Crystals are thus ordered materials in which atoms show both short- (within a couple of nearest neighbors) and long-range order. Because of the periodic lattice potential, the energy states within a crystal are extended, and the electrons can diffuse freely through it.
At the opposite extreme of crystalline order there are the disordered or amorphous solid materials, in which the short-range order may still exist, while the long-range order is completely missing (Fig. 5.1(c)). In these kind of solids, e.g. in heavily doped semiconductors or glasses, periodicity is lacking and the atomic potential varies in a random manner. In certain cases, when the degree of randomness is large enough, electron wavefunctions localize exponentially near individual atomic sites and the diffusion of charge carriers vanishes (Anderson localization) .
With the advances in X-ray diffraction tools at the beginning of the twentieth century, scientists learned to image the signatures of long-range order of crystals by mapping the symmetries of their reciprocal space lattices. The crystal symmetries for all possible arrangements of perfect periodicity are classified in 230 space groups. Contrary to this, the diffraction form, a disordered solid, shows cloud-like concentric rings indicating diffraction from a totally random atomic lattice and, consequently, a lack of any symmetry or, equivalently, any preferential direction in the solid.
We report on the observation of resonant Zener tunnelling of light waves in an optical superlattice. The one dimensional (1D) structures are made in free-standing porous silicon and are designed specifically to exhibit two photonic minibands. A controlled optical path gradient has been maintained over the sample thickness which resulted in tilting of photonic minibands and formation of optical Wannier-Stark ladders. At a certain value of optical gradient the two minibands couple within the extension of the structure and a resonant tunnelling channel through the superlattice forms, resulting in a very high transmission peak. Ultrafast time resolved transmission experiments were performed: excitation of the Wannier-Stark states causes the appearance of photonic Bloch oscillations, which are strongly damped when Zener tunneling modes are excited. The observed phenomenon is the optical analogue of resonant Zener tunnelling in an electronic superlattice.
We report the observation of strongly anisotropic scattering of laser light at oblique incidence on (100)-oriented porous silicon layers. We performed angle-resolved light scattering measurements and three concentric rings were observed. Modeling porous silicon by means of nanometric columnar air pores and an effective anisotropic uniaxial dielectric constant explains the observed phenomenon, and besides, the observation of the angle aperture of these rings allows a direct measurement of relative birefringence. We finally study the changes of optical anisotropy after different modifications of the structure.
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