An obscure parasitic fungus, Basidiolum fimbriatum, was found on Amoebidium parasiticum (Amoebidiales) associated with Caenis sp. (mayfly) nymphs, during a survey of gut fungi (Trichomycetes) from a small stream in northeastern Kansas, USA. The hindguts of the nymphs harboured a species of Legeriomycetaceae and Paramoebidium sp. This is the first report of the ectocommensal protozoan, A. parasiticum, associated with the gills of Caenidae (Ephemeroptera), and of B. fimbriatum in the 142 years since its original documentation from Wiesbaden, Germany. B. fimbriatum is recorded from two midwestern USA states (Kansas and Iowa) and the morphological and developmental features of the parasite on its host are compared with Cienkowski's original observations and interpretation. B. fimbriatum is characterized as a parasitic fungus possessing merosporangia that form on a simple pyriform thallus that penetrates and consumes its host via a haustorial network. The hypothesis that B. fimbriatum is most closely related to members of the order Zoopagales sensu Benjamin (1979) is proposed. The importance of future collections and molecular-based phylogenetic approaches to place this parasitic fungus within a current system of classification are highlighted.