Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) may induce significant metabolic and inflammatory anomalies, increasing the risk of obesity and CVD later in life. Similarly, alterations in the adipose tissue may lead to metabolic changes in children with a history of extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR). These mechanisms may induce alterations in immune response during early life. The aim of the present study was to compare pro-inflammatory markers in prepubertal EUGR children with those in a reference population. A total of thirty-eight prepubertal children with a history of EUGR and a reference group including 123 healthy age- and sex-matched children were selected. Perinatal data were examined. In the prepubertal stage, the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers were measured in both groups. The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein type 1 (MCP-1), neural growth factor, TNF-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 were determined. The plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers CRP, HGF, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-α were higher in the EUGR group than in the reference group (P< 0·001). After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight and length, blood pressure values and TNF-α concentrations remained higher in the EUGR group than in the reference group. Therefore, further investigations should be conducted in EUGR children to evaluate the potential negative impact of metabolic, nutritional and pro-inflammatory changes induced by the EUGR condition.