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The seminiferous tubule (ST) is the location of spermatogenesis, where mature spermatozoa are produced with the assistance of Sertoli cells. The role of extracellular vesicles in the direct communication between Sertoli-germ cells in the ST is still not fully understood. In this study, we reported multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and their source of CD63-enriched exosomes by light and ultrastructure microscopy during the reproductive phases of turtles. Strong CD63 immunopositivity was detected at the basal region in the early and luminal regions of the ST during late spermatogenesis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and western blot (WB) analysis. Labeling of CD63 was detected in the Sertoli cell cytoplasmic processes that surround the developing germ cells during early spermatogenesis and in the lumen of the ST with elongated spermatids during late spermatogenesis. Furthermore, ultrastructure analysis confirmed the existence of numerous MVBs in the Sertoli cell prolongations that surround the round and primary spermatogonia during acrosome biogenesis and with the embedded heads of spermatids in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. Additionally, in spermatids, Chrysanthemum flower centers (CFCs) generated isolated membranes involved in MVBs and autophagosome formation, and their fusion to form amphiosomes was also observed. Additionally, autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (after 24 h) increased CD63 protein signals during late spermatogenesis, as detected by IF and WB. Collectively, our study found MVBs and CD63 rich exosomes within the Sertoli cells and their response to autophagy inhibition in the ST during the spermatogenesis in the turtle.
Activation of persulfate (PS) by ultraviolet light or transition metal catalysts has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the activation of PS by iron oxychloride (FeOCl) in the presence of visible light irradiation. Herein, the catalytic activity of FeOCl was developed for oxidative degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) with the FeOCl/PS/Vis process. The characterization of FeOCl for reaction kinetics, degradation mechanism, and catalyst stability was investigated. It is found that the redox cycle of iron species and photoinduced electrons formed on the FeOCl catalyst surface can effectively activate PS, to generate radicals. Based on quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance, the photogenerated holes (h+) and sulfate radicals (SO4−•) are the predominant reactive oxidants for RhB decolorization, while superoxide radicals (•O2−) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) are also involved. Moreover, FeOCl shows good catalytic performance in a wide range of pH values (pH = 3–10) and excellent reusability and stability, as well.
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