To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study aimed at estimating the transmissibility of hepatitis C. The data for hepatitis C cases were collected in six districts in Xiamen City, China from 2004 to 2018. A population-mixed susceptible-infectious-chronic-recovered (SICR) model was used to fit the data and the parameters of the model were calculated. The basic reproduction number (R0) and the number of newly transmitted cases by a primary case per month (MNI) were adopted to quantitatively assess the transmissibility of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eleven curve estimation models were employed to predict the trends of R0 and MNI in the city. The SICR model fits the reported HCV data well (P < 0.01). The median R0 of each district in Xiamen is 0.4059. R0 follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The median MNI of each district in Xiamen is 0.0020. MNI follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The transmissibility of HCV follows a decreasing trend, which reveals that under the current policy for prevention and control, there would be a high feasibility to eliminate the transmission of HCV in the city.
The search space of the path planning problem can greatly affect the running time and memory consumption, for example, the concave obstacle in grid-based map usually leads to the invalid search space. In this paper, the filling container algorithm is proposed to alleviate the concave area problem in 2D map space, which is inspired from the scenario of pouring water into a cup. With this method, concave areas can be largely excluded by scanning the map repeatedly. And the effectiveness has been proved in our experiments.
To quantify the impact of clinical guidance and rapid respiratory and meningitis/encephalitis multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) testing on the management of infants.
Before-and-after intervention study.
Tertiary-care children’s hospital.
Infants ≤90 days old presenting with fever or hypothermia to the emergency department (ED).
The study spanned 3 periods: period 1, January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014; period 2, January 1, 2015, through April 30, 2018; and period 3, May 1, 2018, through June 15, 2019. During period 1, no standardized clinical guideline had been established and no rapid pathogen testing was available. During period 2, a clinical guideline was implemented, but no rapid testing was available. During period 3, a guideline was in effect, plus mPCR testing using the BioFire FilmArray respiratory panel 2 (RP 2) and the meningitis encephalitis panel (MEP). Outcomes included antimicrobial and ancillary test utilization, length of stay (LOS), admission rate, 30-day mortality. Outcomes were compared across periods using Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson tests and interrupted time series analysis.
Overall 5,317 patients were included: 2,514 in period 1, 2,082 in period 2, and 721 in period 3. Over the entire study period, we detected reductions in the use of chest radiographs, lumbar punctures, LOS, and median antibiotic duration. After adjusting for temporal trends, we observed that the introduction of the guideline was associated with reductions in ancillary tests and lumbar punctures. Use of mPCR testing with the febrile infant clinical guideline was associated with additional reductions in ancillary testing for all patients and a higher proportion of infants 29–60 days old being managed without antibiotics.
Use of mPCR testing plus a guideline for young infant evaluation in the emergency department was associated with less antimicrobial and ancillary test utilization compared to the use of a guideline alone.
To investigate the effects of dietary fibre on follicular atresia in pigs fed a high-fat diet, we fed thirty-two prepubescent gilts a basal diet (CON) or a CON diet supplemented with 300 g/d dietary fibre (fibre), 240 g/d soya oil (SO) or both (fibre + SO). At the 19th day of the 4th oestrus cycle, gilts fed the SO diet showed 112 % more atretic follicles and greater expression of the apoptotic markers, Bax and caspase-3, and these effects were reversed by the fibre diet. The abundance of SCFA-producing microbes was decreased by the SO diet, but this effect was reversed by fibre treatment. Concentrations of serotonin and melatonin in the serum and follicular fluid were increased by the fibre diet. Overall, dietary fibre protected against high fat feeding-induced follicular atresia at least partly via gut microbiota-related serotonin–melatonin synthesis. These results provide insight into preventing negative effects on fertility in humans consuming a high-energy diet.
As China implements the voluntary vaccination programme of one-dose of varicella vaccine (VarV) for decades, robust estimates of the impact of voluntary vaccination era on epidemiology of varicella are needed. We estimated the vaccination coverage (VC) of VarV by using surveillance data on immunisation. The descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the changing epidemiology of varicella from 2007 to 2018. The screening method was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of VarV. The overall VC for VarV was 71.7%, ranged from 47.7% to 79.5% among 2008–2017 birth cohorts. In total, 16 660 varicella cases were reported during 2007–2018, the incidence increased from 10.0 cases per 100 000 population in 2007 to 65.2 cases per 100 000 population in 2018. A shift in age group of varicella was observed since 2012, with the age increased from 5–9 years to 10–14 years. The overall VE was 79.9%, and the VE increased from 60.1% in 2008 birth cohort to 96.2% in 2017 birth cohort. We found that the overall VE for VarV is moderate, but appears highly effective within 5 years after vaccination. In addition, a shift varicella infection to older ages has occurred at the long-term moderate level VC of one-dose VarV. Therefore, to contain the incidence of varicella and prevent any potential shift to older ages, the introduction of VarV into routine immunisation programme is likely needed in Lu'an.
Early maturity allows weedy rice (Oryza sativa L. f. spontanea) to persist by escaping harvest in paddy fields. A shorter grain-filling period contributes to the early maturity of weedy rice. However, the differences in morphology and endosperm development in the caryopsis between weedy and cultivated rice are largely unexplored. Here, we selected four biotypes of weedy rice and associated cultivated rice (ACR; Oryza sativa) from different latitudes to conduct a common garden experiment. The endosperm development process of the caryopsis was observed by optical microscopy and electron microscopy. Endosperm cell division and starch accumulation rate during grain filling were also measured. The grain development progress in weedy rice was more rapid and earlier than that in ACR. The endosperm development progress of weedy rice was 6 to 8 d earlier than that of ACR. The endosperm cells of weedy rice cellularized earlier and more rapidly than those of ACR, and the starch grains of weedy rice were more sharply polygonal and compactly arranged than those of ACR. The active endosperm cell division period in weedy rice was 4 to 7 d shorter than that in ACR, while the active starch accumulation period of weedy rice was 2 to 8 d shorter than that of ACR. The rapid development of endosperm cells and starch grains leads to the shorter grain-filling period of weedy rice. weedy rice.
The addition of clay minerals in drilling fluids modifies the dispersion's viscosity. In this article, scientific advances related to the use of clays and clay minerals (bentonite, palygorskite, sepiolite and mixtures of clay minerals) in drilling fluids are summarized and discussed based on their specific structure, rheological properties, applications, prevailing challenges and future directions. The rheological properties of drilling fluids are affected by the temperature, type of electrolytes, pH and concentration of clay minerals. Bentonites are smectite-rich clays often used in drilling fluids, and their composition varies from deposit to deposit. Such variations significantly affect the behaviour of bentonite-based drilling fluids. Palygorskite is suitable for use in oil-based drilling fluids, but the gelation and gel structures of palygorskite-added drilling fluids have not received much attention. Sepiolite is often used in water-based drilling fluids as a rheological additive. Dispersions containing mixtures of clays including bentonite, kaolin, palygorskite and sepiolite are used in drilling fluids requiring specific features such as high-density drilling fluids or those used in impermeable slurry walls. In these cases, the surface chemistry–microstructure–property relationships of mixed-clay dispersions need to be understood fully. The prevailing challenges and future directions in drilling fluids research include safety, ‘green’ processes and high-temperature and high-pressure-resistant clay minerals.
A scalable battery recycling strategy to recover and regenerate solid electrolytes and cathode materials in spent all solid-state batteries, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gases.
With the rapidly increasing ubiquity of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), sustainable battery recycling is a matter of growing urgency. The major challenge faced in LIB sustainability lies with the fact that the current LIBs are not designed for recycling, making it difficult to engineer recycling approaches that avoid breaking batteries down into their raw materials. Thus, it is prudent to explore new approaches to both fabricate and recycle next-generation batteries before they enter the market. Here, we developed a sustainable design and scalable recycling strategy for next-generation all solid-state batteries (ASSBs). We use the EverBatt model to analyze the relative energy consumption and environmental impact compared to conventional recycling methods. We demonstrate efficient separation and recovery of spent solid electrolytes and electrodes from a lithium metal ASSB and directly regenerate them into usable formats without damaging their core chemical structure. The recycled materials are then reconstituted to fabricate new batteries, achieving similar performance as pristine ASSBs, completing the cycle. This work demonstrates the first fully recycled ASSB and provides critical design consideration for future sustainable batteries.
To investigate the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake before conception and during pregnancy reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and to examine the joint effect of folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake on the risk of SGA.
Participants were interviewed by trained study interviewers using a standardized and structured questionnaire. Information on birth outcomes and maternal complications was abstracted from medical records and dietary information was collected via a semi-quantitative FFQ before conception and during pregnancy.
A birth cohort data analysis using the 2010–2012 Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital.
Women (n 8758) and their children enrolled in the study.
Folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·86), with the reduced risk seen mainly for SGA at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85) and nulliparous SGA (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). There was no significant association between dietary folate intake and SGA risk.
Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA and the risk varied by preterm status and parity.
Distinguishing between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and other causes ofleft ventricular hypertrophy can be difficult in children. We hypothesised that cardiac MRI T1 mapping could improve diagnosis of paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and that measures of myocardial function would correlate with T1 times and extracellular volume fraction.
Thirty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy completed MRI with tissue tagging, T1-mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement. Left ventricular circumferential strain was calculated from tagged images. T1, partition coefficient, and synthetic extracellular volume were measured at base, mid, apex, and thickest area of myocardial hypertrophy. MRI measures compared to cohort of 19 healthy children and young adults. Mann–Whitney U, Spearman’s rho, and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients had increased left ventricular ejection fraction and indexed mass. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients had decreased global strain and increased native T1 (−14.3% interquartile range [−16.0, −12.1] versus −17.3% [−19.0, −15.7], p < 0.001 and 1015 ms [991, 1026] versus 990 ms [972, 1001], p = 0.019). Partition coefficient and synthetic extracellular volume were not increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Global native T1 correlated inversely with ejection fraction (ρ = −0.63, p = 0.002) and directly with global strain (ρ = 0.51, p = 0.019). A logistic regression model using ejection fraction and native T1 distinguished between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and control with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91.
In this cohort of paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, strain was decreased and native T1 was increased compared with controls. Native T1 correlated with both ejection fraction and strain, and a model using native T1 and ejection fraction differentiated patients with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Myocardial strain measurements are increasingly used to detect complications following heart transplantation. However, the temporal association of these changes with allograft rejection is not well defined. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution of strain measurements prior to the diagnosis of rejection in paediatric heart transplant recipients.
All paediatric heart transplant recipients (2004–2015) with at least one episode of acute rejection were identified. Longitudinal and circumferential strain measurements were assessed at the time of rejection and retrospectively on all echocardiograms until the most recent negative biopsy. Smoothing technique (LOESS) was used to visualise the changes of each variable over time and estimate the time preceding rejection at which alterations are first detectable.
A total of 58 rejection episodes were included from 37 unique patients. In the presence of rejection, there were decrements from baseline in global longitudinal strain (−18.2 versus −14.1), global circumferential strain (−24.1 versus −19.6), longitudinal strain rate (−1 versus −0.8), circumferential strain rate (−1.3 versus −1.1), peak longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (1.3 versus 1), and peak circumferential early diastolic strain rate (1.5 versus 1.3) (p<0.01 for all). The earliest detectable changes occurred 45 days prior to rejection with simultaneous alterations in myocardial strain and ejection fraction.
Changes in graft function can be detected non-invasively prior to the diagnosis of rejection. However, changes in strain occur concurrently with a decline in ejection fraction. Strain measurements aid in the non-invasive detection of rejection, but may not facilitate earlier diagnosis compared to more traditional measures of ventricular function.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The oxidation behavior of two percentages of TiB + TiC reinforced Ti–6Al–4V composites derived from Ti–B4C–C and Ti–TiB2–TiC systems was investigated at 873–1073 K for 320 h in air. The oxidation weight gain curves of the (TiB + TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V composites at 973 K basically obey parabolic law, while those at 873 and 1073 K mainly follow linear law and parabolic-linear law, respectively. The oxide layers of the composites are predominately found to be rutile TiO2, Al2O3, and the mixture of V2O3 and V2O5. The oxidation layers turn thinner with increasing the nominal volume fraction of reinforcements in the (TiB + TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V composites. Moreover, according to the calculation results of reaction index (n) and effective activation energy (Qeff) and the analyses of cross-sections of the oxidation layers, the oxidation resistance ability of the composites from Ti–TiB2–TiC system is higher than that from Ti–B4C–C system while employing the same sintering temperature and nominal volume fraction of reinforcement.
Dietary delivery of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has a great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. An important first step is to discover possible RNA-interference (RNAi)-target genes effective against larvae, especially the old larvae. In the present paper, five putative Broad-Complex (BrC) cDNAs (Z1-Z4, and Z6) were identified in L. decemlineata. The expression of the five LdBrC isoforms was suppressed by juvenile hormone signaling, whereas the transcription was upregulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling at the fourth (final) instar larval stage. Feeding of bacterially expressed dsBrC (derived from a common fragment of the five LdBrC variants) in the third- and fourth-instar larvae successfully knocked down the target mRNAs. For the fourth-instar LdBrC RNAi hypomorphs, they had a higher larval mortality compared with the controls. Moreover, most dsBrC-fed beetles did not pupate normally. After removal of the apolysed larval cuticle, a miniature adult was found. The adult head, compound eyes, prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax were found on the dorsal view. Distinct adult cuticle pigmentation was seen on the prothorax. The mouthparts, forelegs, midlegs, and hindlegs could be observed on the ventral view of the miniature adults. For the third-instar LdBrC RNAi specimens, around 20% moribund beetles remained as prepupae and finally died. Therefore, LdBrC is among the most attractive candidate genes for RNAi to control the fourth-instar larvae in L. decemlineata.
Outcome analyses in large administrative databases are ideal for rare diseases such as Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Unfortunately, Becker and Duchenne do not yet have specific International Classification of Disease-9/-10 codes. We hypothesised that an algorithm could accurately identify these patients within administrative data and improve assessment of cardiovascular morbidity.
Hospital discharges (n=13,189) for patients with muscular dystrophy classified by International Classification of Disease-9 code: 359.1 were identified from the Pediatric Health Information System database. An identification algorithm was created and then validated at three institutions. Multi-variable generalised linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the associations of length of stay, hospitalisation cost, and 14-day readmission with age, encounter severity, and respiratory disease accounting for clustering within the hospital.
The identification algorithm improved identification of patients with Becker and Duchenne from 55% (code 359.1 alone) to 77%. On bi-variate analysis, left ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmia were associated with increased cost of hospitalisation, length of stay, and mortality (p<0.001). After adjustment, Becker and Duchenne patients with left ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmia had increased length of stay with rate ratio 1.4 and 1.2 (p<0.001 and p=0.004) and increased cost of hospitalization with rate ratio 1.4 and 1.4 (both p<0.001).
Our algorithm accurately identifies patients with Becker and Duchenne and can be used for future analysis of administrative data. Our analysis demonstrates the significant effects of cardiovascular disease on length of stay and hospitalisation cost in patients with Becker and Duchenne. Better recognition of the contribution of cardiovascular disease during hospitalisation with earlier more intensive evaluation and therapy may help improve outcomes in this patient population.
The average power of diode-pumped fiber lasers has been developed deeply into the kW regime in the past years. However, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is still a major factor limiting the further power scaling. Here, we have demonstrated the mitigation of SRS in kilowatt-level diode-pumped fiber amplifiers using a chirped and tilted fiber Bragg grating (CTFBG) for the first time. The CTFBG is designed and inscribed in large-mode-area (LMA) fibers, matching with the operating wavelength of the fiber amplifier. With the CTFBG inserted between the seed laser and the amplifier stage, an SRS suppression ratio of
is achieved in spectrum at the maximum output laser power of 2.35 kW, and there is no reduction in laser slope efficiency and degradation in beam quality. This work proves the feasibility and practicability of CTFBGs for SRS suppression in high-power fiber lasers, which is very useful for the further power scaling.
The Misell algorithm is one of the most widely used phase retrieval holography methods for large reflector antennas to measure surface deformation. However, it usually locks in a local minimum because it heads downhill from an initial estimation without any consideration whether it heads for a global minimum or not. The core problem of the Misell algorithm is to find an initial estimation near the global minimum to avoid local stagnation. To cope with the problem, we construct a hybrid Misell algorithm, named modified very fast simulated annealing (MVFSA)-Misell algorithm, to search for the global minimum with a high efficiency. The algorithm is based on the combination of the MVFSA algorithm and Misell algorithm. Firstly, the MVFSA is utilized to obtain a rough position near the global minimum in limited steps. Then, the Misell algorithm starts from the rough position to converge to the global minimum with high speed and accuracy. The convergence characteristic of the proposed algorithm was discussed in detail through digital simulation. Simulation results show that the algorithm can reach global minimum in a very short time. Unlike the traditional Misell algorithm, the hybrid algorithm is not influenced by initial phase estimation.
Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) is a well-known multipurpose tree with aromatic oils, insect-repellent effects and ornamental value. In this study, a total of 74,289 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in 56,124 unigenes, of which 14,225 unigenes contained more than one SSR locus. Among these SSR loci, the mono-nucleotide repeats were the most frequent, with a frequency of 61.14%, followed by 24.87% di-nucleotide repeats and 12.87% tri-nucleotide repeats. Twenty-one polymorphic SSR markers were developed and validated in 45 camphor trees. The 21 loci were further examined for cross-species transferability in other six related species. The novel genic-SSR markers will not only benefit genetic diversity analysis and wild resources conservation of C. camphora, but also contribute to exploring the further evolutionary history and genetic differentiation pattern of Cinnamomum.
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum (Lindl. ex Hook. f.) Stein (Orchidaceae) is a valuable but endangered ornamental plant. In the present study, the microsatellites characteristics were analysed and 14 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed based on the de novo transcriptome sequencing for P. hirsutissimum using Illumina pair-end sequencing technology. A total of 7406 SSRs were detected in 56,688 unigenes, with the occurrence frequency of 13.06% and an average density of one SSR per 5.42 kb; and 150 primer pairs randomly selected from 2090 pairs except mononucleotide repeats were synthesized for verification. These loci were validated in 32 individuals from the concentrated distribution centre, and were successfully amplified using 14 primer sets showing a high level of polymorphism. These SSR markers will be useful in future studies of genetic diversity, the population structure of P. hirsutissimum and make effective conservation strategy.